The ID (inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding) helix-loop-helix proteins are important mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types through regulation of gene expression. Overexpression of the ID proteins in normal human keratinocytes results in extension of culture lifespan, indicating that these proteins are important for epidermal differentiation. Our hypothesis is that the ID proteins are targets of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in keratinocytes.
We identified and characterized a human orthologue of Rif1 protein, which in budding yeast interacts in vivo with the major duplex telomeric DNA binding protein Rap1p and negatively regulates telomere length. Depletion of hRif1 by RNA interference in human cancer cells impaired cell growth but had no detectable effect on telomere length, although hRif1 overexpression in S. cerevisiae interfered with telomere length control, in a manner specifically dependent on the presence of yeast Rif1p.
Microarray is a technique that provides a global analysis of gene expression at the level of transcription. Genetic and epigenetic changes underlie neoplastic transformation, cardiovascular disease, some psychiatric illnesses, and a growing list of disease pathogeneses and therapeutic responses. The profile of genes expressed by different cells (gene up- and downregulation under different conditions) determines their phenotype, and thus provides insights into the molecular basis for health and disease.
Genetic studies implicating the region of human chromosome 18p11.2 in susceptibility to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have observed parent-of-origin effects that may be explained by genomic imprinting. We have identified a transcriptional variant of the GNAL gene in this region, employing an alternative first exon that is 5' to the originally identified start site. This alternative GNAL transcript encodes a longer functional variant of the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit, Golf.
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
The serotonin reuptake transporter (5HTT) is thought to be the principal regulator of serotonergic activity and epigenetic effects at this locus are thought to be important moderators of vulnerability to neuropsychiatric illness. In attempt to understand the basis of this regulation, several gene polymorphisms that affect 5HTT mRNA levels have been described. But to date, no clear mechanism linking these polymorphisms to vulnerability to epigenetic effects have been described.
AIMS: The study aimed to identify the specific human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of artemisinin. METHODS: Microsomes from human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with individual CYP450 cDNAs were investigated for their capacity to metabolize artemisinin. The effect on artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by chemical inhibitors selective for individual forms of CYP450 was investigated.
Artemisinin is a natural product used as an alternative drug in the treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. In the present work we show that artemisinin shares with other sesquiterpene lactones the ability to inhibit the activation of the nuclear factor NF-kB: by this mechanism, artemisinin, as well as parthenolide, inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in cytokine-stimulated human astrocytoma T67 cells. These results suggest that artemisinin, in addition to its antiparasitic properties, could also exert a therapeutic effect on neurological complications of malaria.
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the plant Artemisia annua, forms the basis of the most important treatments of malaria in use today. In an effort to elucidate the biosynthesis of artemisinin, an expressed sequence tag approach to identifying the relevant biosynthetic genes was undertaken using isolated glandular trichomes as a source of mRNA.
BACKGROUND: Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of commercially important secondary metabolites in many plant species. The most prominent anti-malarial drug artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, only limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model plant species. RESULTS: We present a global characterization of A. annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing.
Artemisinin is a plant natural product produced by Artemisia annua and the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria. Efforts to eradicate malaria are increasing demand for an affordable, high-quality, robust supply of artemisinin. We performed deep sequencing on the transcriptome of A. annua to identify genes and markers for fast-track breeding. Extensive genetic variation enabled us to build a detailed genetic map with nine linkage groups.