DNA Damage

Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

A study to evaluate an antimutagenic potential of water, chloroform and acetone extracts of Triphala has been made in an Ames histidine reversion assay using TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium against the direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and sodium azide, and the indirect-acting promutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2AF), in the presence of phenobarbitone-induced rat hepatic S9. A combination drug 'Triphala' - a composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, T.

Author(s): 
Kaur, S.
Arora, S.
Kaur, K.
Kumar, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology: Official Organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer

We report the results of our genotoxic evaluation of extracts from three medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Juglans regia, and Terminalia chebula and the herbal drug Triphala employing the VITOTOX and comet tests.These tests detect DNA damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic test systems, respectively. In the VITOTOX test, none of the extracts were identified as genotoxic.

Author(s): 
Arora, Saroj
Brits, Ethel
Kaur, Swayamjot
Kaur, Kamaljeet
Sohi, Rajbir S.
Kumar, Subodh
Verschaeve, Luc
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Radioprotective ability of the aqueous extract of the fruit of Terminalia chebula (TCE) was evaluated for its antioxidant and radioprotective abilities. TCE (50 microg) was able to neutralise 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, a stable free radical by 92.9%. The free radical neutralizing ability of TCE was comparable to that of ascorbate (100 microM) 93.5% and gallic acid (100 microM) 91.5% and was higher than that of the diethyldithiocarbamate (200 microM) 55.4%, suggesting the free radical activity of TCE.

Author(s): 
Gandhi, Nitin Motilal
Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan
Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Pestalotiopsis species were most dominant endophytic species isolated from four medicinal plants including Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Azadirachta indica, and Holarrhena antidysenterica. Thirty Pestalotiopsis species isolated from different parts of the medicinal plants were selected for the study. The antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Pestalotiopsis isolates were determined by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, lipid peroxidation, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity. Pestalotiopsis isolates of T.

Author(s): 
Tejesvi, Mysore V.
Kini, Kukkundoor R.
Prakash, Harishchandra S.
Subbiah, Ven
Shetty, Hunthrike S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics

The influences of substoichiometric amounts of seven plant extracts in the Fenton reaction-mediated damage to deoxynucleosides, deoxynucleoside monophosphates, deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and supercoiled plasmid DNA were studied to rationalize anticancer properties reported in some of these extracts.

Author(s): 
Kar, Indrani
Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biosciences

Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells.

Author(s): 
Takauji, Yuki
Miki, Kensuke
Mita, Juma
Hossain, Mohammad Nazir
Yamauchi, Masatake
Kioi, Mitomu
Ayusawa, Dai
Fujii, Michihiko
Publication Title: 
The EMBO journal

Telomere loss has been proposed as a mechanism for counting cell divisions during aging in normal somatic cells. How such a mitotic clock initiates the intracellular signalling events that culminate in G1 cell cycle arrest and senescence to restrict the lifespan of normal human cells is not known. We investigated the possibility that critically short telomere length activates a DNA damage response pathway involving p53 and p21(WAF1) in aging cells.

Author(s): 
Vaziri, H.
West, M. D.
Allsopp, R. C.
Davison, T. S.
Wu, Y. S.
Arrowsmith, C. H.
Poirier, G. G.
Benchimol, S.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), an abundant naturally-occurring dipeptide has been shown to exhibit anti-ageing properties towards cultured cells, possibly due in part to its antioxidant/free radical scavenging abilities. In this paper the results of an investigation on the effects of carnosine, at the physiological concentration of 20 mM, on oxidative DNA damage levels and in vitro lifespan in peripheral blood derived human CD4+ T cell clones are reported.

Author(s): 
Hyland, P.
Duggan, O.
Hipkiss, A.
Barnett, C.
Barnett, Y.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Biogerontology is the study of the aging of biological systems. This review addresses the relationship between chemistry and biology during aging, proposing that chemistry is responsible for the aging of biological systems. In the continuing struggle between chemistry and biology, chemistry is always the short-term, tactical winner--death of the individual is inevitable. However, barring the extinction of species, biology is the long-term, strategic victor--life survives, and the struggle continues.

Author(s): 
Baynes, J. W.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Oncology

Retroviral infection of hTERT, the catalytic component of telomerase, into BJ fibroblasts (population doubling 28) resulted in reconstitution of telomerase activity, telomere maintenance, and extension of in vitro lifespan. The hTERT-infected cells also exhibited increased growth rate and colony forming efficiency relative to controls, while remaining contact-inhibited and maintaining a p53-mediated damage response following gamma-irradiation.

Author(s): 
Forsythe, Heidi L.
Elmore, Lynne W.
Jensen, Keith O.
Landon, Melissa R.
Holt, Shawn E.

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