DNA Fragmentation

Publication Title: 
Mutation Research

Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is not a static seminal parameter, since the longevity of sperm DNA decreases progressively with time following ejaculation or thawing. While the dynamics of SDF is a species-specific characteristic, in the case of humans, there is still significant variation within patients.

Author(s): 
Santiso, Rebeca
Tamayo, MarÌa
Gos·lvez, Jaime
Johnston, Steve
MariÒo, Alfonso
Fern·ndez, Carlos
Losada, Carlos
Fern·ndez, JosÈ Luis
Publication Title: 
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association

CONTEXT: Prolonged calorie restriction increases life span in rodents. Whether prolonged calorie restriction affects biomarkers of longevity or markers of oxidative stress, or reduces metabolic rate beyond that expected from reduced metabolic mass, has not been investigated in humans. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of 6 months of calorie restriction, with or without exercise, in overweight, nonobese (body mass index, 25 to <30) men and women.

Author(s): 
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
de Jonge, Lilian
Frisard, Madlyn I.
DeLany, James P.
Larson-Meyer, D. Enette
Rood, Jennifer
Nguyen, Tuong
Martin, Corby K.
Volaufova, Julia
Most, Marlene M.
Greenway, Frank L.
Smith, Steven R.
Deutsch, Walter A.
Williamson, Donald A.
Ravussin, Eric
Pennington CALERIE Team
Publication Title: 
Biomedical Research (Tokyo, Japan)

Chloroquine, quinine, artemisinin, and pyrimethamine are generally considered safe drugs for treatment of malaria during pregnancy; however, high doses of these drugs are detrimental with adverse outcome of pregnancy. Since antimalarial drugs interaction with placental cells has not been addressed, in this study, we employed a non-radioactive proliferation assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays to investigate the effect of these drugs on JAR trophoblastic cell survival.

Author(s): 
Nilkaeo, Athip
Bhuvanath, Suthinee
Praputbut, Sakonwun
Wisessombat, Seuptrakool
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

Dehydroartemisinin (DHA) is an effective anti-malaria agent. Fortilin is an anti-apoptotic molecule overexpressed in many human cancers. Here, we show that DHA binds human fortilin, increases the ubiquitination of fortilin, shortens fortilin's half-life in a proteasome-dependent fashion, and reduces cellular levels of fortilin in varieties of cells. DHA induced DNA fragmentation in U2OS cells in a fortilin-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Fujita, Takayuki
Felix, Kumar
Pinkaew, Decha
Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn
Liu, Zhihe
Fujise, Ken
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of cell death (apoptosis) by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model. The viability of PC-3 cells, but not a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC), was reduced significantly on treatment with guggulsterone in a concentration-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Singh, Shivendra V.
Zeng, Yan
Xiao, Dong
Vogel, Victor G.
Nelson, Joel B.
Dhir, Rajiv
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Pharmacology

Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Dong
Zeng, Yan
Prakash, Lakshmi
Badmaev, Vladmir
Majeed, Muhammed
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
Life Sciences

There is growing evidence that high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), generated by activated astrocytes, might be involved in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, ischemia and epilepsy. It has recently been suggested that glial cells may produce NO under superoxide radical stimulation by enzyme-independent mechanism. This suggests that also natural antioxidants may have therapeutical relevance in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of Bhattacharya et al.

Author(s): 
Russo, Alessandra
Borrelli, Francesca
Campisi, Agata
Acquaviva, Rosaria
Raciti, Giuseppina
Vanella, Angelo
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Tiliacora racemosa and Semecarpus anacardium, the two plants frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in four human tumour cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukaemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukaemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in appropriate media the ethanol extract of T. racemosa root, the total alkaloids isolated from this organ and S. anacardium nut oil prepared according to the Ayurvedic principle were found to have cytotoxic activity.

Author(s): 
Chakraborty, Sutapa
Roy, Madhumita
Taraphdar, Amit K.
Bhattacharya, R. K.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of cell death (apoptosis) by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model. The viability of PC-3 cells, but not a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC), was reduced significantly on treatment with guggulsterone in a concentration-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Singh, Shivendra V.
Zeng, Yan
Xiao, Dong
Vogel, Victor G.
Nelson, Joel B.
Dhir, Rajiv
Tripathi, Yamini B.
Publication Title: 
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods

Turmeric is a well recognized and highly recommended herb in ayurvedic systems of medicine and it has also been used for culinary purposes for thousands of years. Bis-O-demethylatedcurcumin (BDMC) was found to be more efficacious than curcumin and the increased potentcy was attributed to a higher number of phenolic groups in BDMC.

Author(s): 
Krishnaraju, A. V.
Sundararaju, D.
Sengupta, K.
Venkateswarlu, S.
Trimurtulu, G.

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