The human gene C10orf2 encodes the mitochondrial replicative DNA helicase Twinkle, mutations of which are responsible for a significant fraction of cases of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), a human mitochondrial disease caused by defects in intergenomic communication. We report the analysis of orthologous mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) helicase gene, d-mtDNA helicase.
The phenomenon that caloric restriction increases life span in a variety of species from yeast to mice has been the focus of much interest. Recent observations suggest that a protein important for heterochromatin formation, Sir2, is central for caloric restriction-induced longevity in lower organisms.
Recent results indicate that the longevity of both invertebrates and vertebrates can be altered through genetic manipulation and pharmacological intervention. Most of these interventions involve alterations of one or more of the following: insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway, caloric intake, stress resistance and nuclear structure. How longevity regulation relates to aging per se is less clear, but longevity increases are usually accompanied by extended periods of good health. How these results will translate to primate aging and longevity remains to be shown.
Telomerase canonically maintains telomeres, but recent reports have suggested that the core protein mammalian telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) component, together with the chromatin remodeling factor BRG1 and ?-catenin, may also bind to and promote expression of Wnt target genes. However, this proposed noncanonical role of TERT in Wnt signaling has been controversial. Here, we investigated the effects of human TERT (hTERT) on Wnt signaling in human breast cancer lines and HeLa cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Telomeres are specialized DNA/protein complexes that comprise the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The highly expressed Ku heterodimer, composed of 70 and 80 K(d) subunits (Ku70 and Ku80), is the high-affinity DNA binding component of the DNA-dependent protein kinase. Ku is critical for nonhomologous DNA double-stranded break repair and site-specific recombination of V(D)J gene segments. Ku also plays an important role in telomere maintenance in yeast.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that specific extracts and the pure triterpene glycoside actein obtained from black cohosh inhibit growth of human breast cancer cells. Our aim is to identify alterations in gene expression induced by treatment with a methanolic extract (MeOH) of black cohosh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated MDA-MB-453 human breast cancer cells with the MeOH extract at 40 microg/ml and collected RNA at 6 and 24 h; we confirmed the microarray results with real-time RT-PCR for 18 genes.