Five Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different plant species in Hungary: strain 39/7(T) from Prunus cerasifera Myrobalan, strain 0 from grapevine var. Ezerjó, strain 7/1 from raspberry var. Findus and in Poland, strain C3.4.1 from Colt rootstock (Prunus avium × Prunus pseudocerasus) and strain CP17.2.2 from Prunus avium. Only one of these isolates, strain 0, is able to cause crown gall on different plant species.
The diet known as caloric restriction (CR) has been known for 70 yr to extend the life span of rodents (1). CR can also extend life span in a broad range of other species as well, from unicellular organisms (2,3), to invertebrates (4) and most likely primates, as well (5). The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a useful model for the study of pathways that determine life span in response to dietary intake.
Mycoplasms are known as pathogens of economic and medical interest in plants, animals and man. Here, we show a positive correlation between the presence of Mycoplasma-like symbionts in their isopod hosts and survivorship on low-quality food. Most isopods that survived feeding on a cellulose-based low-quality diet for 90 days harboured 'Candidatus Hepatoplasma' in their midgut glands, while those that died within 90 days mostly either harboured no or other bacterial symbionts.
Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin.
The rRNA genes in the somatic macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila are normally on 21 kb linear palindromic molecules (rDNA). We examined the effect on rRNA gene dosage of transforming T.thermophila macronuclei with plasmid constructs containing a pair of tandemly repeated rDNA replication origin regions unlinked to the rRNA gene. A significant proportion of the plasmid sequences were maintained as high copy circular molecules, eventually consisting solely of tandem arrays of origin regions.
Site-directed mutagenesis of the telomerase RNA from Tetrahymena thermophila was used previously to demonstrate the templating function of a sequence within this RNA; this sequence specifies the sequence of telomeric DNA in vivo. The possible functional importance of a phylogenetically conserved nucleotide outside the telomerase RNA template region was investigated by a similar experimental approach.
We have analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) and transcription initiation and termination regions of the extrachromosomal rDNAs of the ciliated protozoans Tetrahymena thermophila and Glaucoma chattoni. The sequences surrounding the sites of transcription initiation and termination are highly conserved. The only extensive homologies of the NTS regions occur in five sets of dispersed repetitive sequences.
We sequenced and compared the telomeric regions of linear rDNAs from vegetative macronuclei of several ciliates in the suborder Tetrahymenina. All telomeres consisted of tandemly repeated C4A2 sequences, including the 5' telomere of the 11 kb rDNA from developing macronuclei of Tetrahymena thermophila. Our sequence of the 11 kb 5' telomeric region shows that each one of a previously described pair of inverted repeats flanking the micronuclear rDNA (Yao et al., Mol. Cell. Biol.