Dopamine Agents

Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important problem both for people with the disease and for society. There is no cure, and alleviation of symptoms forms the cornerstone of care. Excessive fatigue that severely limits activity is experienced by at least two-thirds of the estimated 60,000 people with MS in the UK. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify current treatments for fatigue in MS and their evidence-base.

Author(s): 
Brañas, P.
Jordan, R.
Fry-Smith, A.
Burls, A.
Hyde, C.
Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important problem both for people with the disease and for society. There is no cure, and alleviation of symptoms forms the cornerstone of care. Excessive fatigue that severely limits activity is experienced by at least two-thirds of the estimated 60,000 people with MS in the UK. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify current treatments for fatigue in MS and their evidence-base.

Author(s): 
Brañas, P.
Jordan, R.
Fry-Smith, A.
Burls, A.
Hyde, C.
Publication Title: 
InvestigaciÛn ClÌnica

Wilson disease is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of the ATP7B gene, which leads to intoxication with copper as a result of an unbalance of copper homeostasis. The clinical manifestations resulting from this intoxication are related to the affectation of liver and the encephalon in most cases. Several animal models are currently available for the study of the malady. However, in such models no neurological symptoms are observed, which limits their use for the study of pathogenic effects of this disease on the central nervous system.

Author(s): 
Arcaya, JosÈ Luis
Tejeda, Carlos Mario
Salazar, Ubalguis
Silva, Ernesto JosÈ
Urdaneta, Karla
Varela, Krystal
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

By applying calorie restriction (CR) at 30-50% below ad libitum levels, studies in numerous species have reported increased life span, reduced incidence and delayed onset of age-related diseases, improved stress resistance, and decelerated functional decline. Whether this nutritional intervention is relevant to human aging remains to be determined; however, evidence emerging from CR studies in nonhuman primates suggests that response to CR in primates parallels that observed in rodents. To evaluate CR effects in humans, clinical trials have been initiated.

Author(s): 
Ingram, Donald K.
Anson, R. Michael
de Cabo, Rafael
Mamczarz, Jacek
Zhu, Min
Mattison, Julie
Lane, Mark A.
Roth, George S.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

In anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorders and phobias, classical conditioning pairs natural (unconditioned) fear-eliciting stimuli with contextual or discrete cues resulting in enduring fear responses to multiple stimuli. Extinction is an active learning process that results in a reduction of conditioned fear responses after conditioned stimuli are no longer paired with unconditioned stimuli. Fear extinction often produces incomplete effects and this highlights the relative permanence of bonds between conditioned stimuli and conditioned fear responses.

Author(s): 
Kaplan, Gary B.
Moore, Katherine A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice

BACKGROUND: Spasmodic torticollis is a movement disorder of the nuchal muscles, characterized by tremor or by tonic posturing of the head in a rotated, twisted, or abnormally flexed or extended position or some combination of these positions. The abnormal posturing of the head allows this disorder to be clinically diagnosed. Psychiatric symptoms frequently accompany or precede the diagnosis of the movement disorder.

Author(s): 
Smith, D. L.
DeMario, M. C.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

The leaf extract of E. neriifolia significantly reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice at all doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in mice and rats and was devoid of catalepsic effect thereby, suggesting specific dopaminergic receptor modulating activity. The extract (400 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. It showed protection against maximal electro-shock-induced convulsion at 400 mg/kg. E. neriifolia leaf extract had anxiolytic action at 400 mg/kg by increasing the percentage of time spent in open arm in elevated plus-maze.

Author(s): 
Bigoniya, Papiya
Rana, A. C.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Asparagus racemosus Linn. (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana used as an adaptogen. Adaptogenic drugs are those which are useful as anti-stress agents by promoting non-specific resistance of the body. Although, the adaptogenic effect of AR is well documented, its use in psychological disorders like depression is not scientifically evaluated. Hence, the present investigation evaluates the antidepressant effect of methanolic extract of roots of AR (MAR) standardized to saponins (62.2% w/w).

Author(s): 
Singh, Gireesh K.
Garabadu, Debapriya
Muruganandam, A. V.
Joshi, Vinod K.
Krishnamurthy, Sairam
Publication Title: 
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders

The stable 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced hemiparkinsonian (HP) rhesus monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been frequently used to test preclinical experimental therapeutics targeted to treat patients with advanced PD who suffer from motor fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias. We retrospectively analyzed data from 17 stable HP rhesus monkeys treated long-term with chronic intermittent dosing of levodopa (LD) in an attempt to induce choreoathetoid and dystonic dyskinesias.

Author(s): 
Lieu, Christopher A.
Deogaonkar, Milind
Bakay, Roy A. E.
Subramanian, Thyagarajan
Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important problem both for people with the disease and for society. There is no cure, and alleviation of symptoms forms the cornerstone of care. Excessive fatigue that severely limits activity is experienced by at least two-thirds of the estimated 60,000 people with MS in the UK. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify current treatments for fatigue in MS and their evidence-base.

Author(s): 
Brañas, P.
Jordan, R.
Fry-Smith, A.
Burls, A.
Hyde, C.

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