Dopamine Antagonists

Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II (n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally).

Author(s): 
Tamhane, M. D.
Thorat, S. P.
Rege, N. N.
Dahanukar, S. A.
Publication Title: 
InvestigaciÛn ClÌnica

Wilson disease is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of the ATP7B gene, which leads to intoxication with copper as a result of an unbalance of copper homeostasis. The clinical manifestations resulting from this intoxication are related to the affectation of liver and the encephalon in most cases. Several animal models are currently available for the study of the malady. However, in such models no neurological symptoms are observed, which limits their use for the study of pathogenic effects of this disease on the central nervous system.

Author(s): 
Arcaya, JosÈ Luis
Tejeda, Carlos Mario
Salazar, Ubalguis
Silva, Ernesto JosÈ
Urdaneta, Karla
Varela, Krystal
Publication Title: 
Drugs

Tourette's disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised clinically by motor and vocal tics, which may be associated to conductual disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurochemistry of Tourette's disorder is not well known, there are some effective therapies for tics, OCD and ADHD. However, these are not devoid of adverse effects. Tics only require treatment when they interfere with the functioning of the patient.

Author(s): 
Jiménez-Jiménez, F. J.
García-Ruiz, P. J.
Publication Title: 
Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira Para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa Em Cirurgia

PURPOSE: To compare, by continuous infusion of ketamine or medetomidine combined to methotrimeprazine and buprenorphine, ketamine and midazolam, the degree of hypnosis, myorelaxation, anesthetic quality and surgical feasibility through evaluation of possible parametric alterations and recovery quality. METHODS: 20 healthy adult females dogs, aged 3 to 5 years, body weight between 7 and 15 kg, were assigned randomly and homogenously to 2 groups of 10 animals each (n=10), group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2), respectively.

Author(s): 
Silva, Fernando do Carmo
Hatschbach, Eduardo
Lima, Alfredo Feio da Maia
Carvalho, Yuri Karaccas de
Massone, Flávio
Publication Title: 
Molecular Pain

BACKGROUND: Affections are thought to regulate pain perception through the descending pain inhibitory system in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined in mice the affective change by inhalation of the lemon oil, which is well used for aromatherapy, and the effect of lemon odor on pain sensation. We also examined the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and descending pain inhibitory system to such regulation of pain. RESULTS: In the elevated plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased by inhalation of lemon oil.

Author(s): 
Ikeda, Hiroshi
Takasu, Syuntaro
Murase, Kazuyuki
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia (amlapitta) and as a galactogogue. It was hence compared with a modern drug, metoclopramide, which is used in dyspepsia to reduce gastric emptying time. Gastric emptying half- time (GE t1/2) was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers using a cross-over design. The basal GE t1/2 in volunteers was 159.9 +/- 45.9 min (mean +/- SD) which was reduced to 101 +/- 40.8 min by Shatavari (p less than 0.001) and to 85.3 +/- 21.9 by metoclopramide (p less than 0.001).

Author(s): 
Dalvi, S. S.
Nadkarni, P. M.
Gupta, K. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II (n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally).

Author(s): 
Tamhane, M. D.
Thorat, S. P.
Rege, N. N.
Dahanukar, S. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia (amlapitta) and as a galactogogue. It was hence compared with a modern drug, metoclopramide, which is used in dyspepsia to reduce gastric emptying time. Gastric emptying half- time (GE t1/2) was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers using a cross-over design. The basal GE t1/2 in volunteers was 159.9 +/- 45.9 min (mean +/- SD) which was reduced to 101 +/- 40.8 min by Shatavari (p less than 0.001) and to 85.3 +/- 21.9 by metoclopramide (p less than 0.001).

Author(s): 
Dalvi, S. S.
Nadkarni, P. M.
Gupta, K. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II (n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally).

Author(s): 
Tamhane, M. D.
Thorat, S. P.
Rege, N. N.
Dahanukar, S. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

In addition to its involvement in motor control and in encoding reward value, increasing evidence also implicates basal ganglia dopaminergic mechanisms in responses to stress and aversive stimuli. Basal ganglia dopamine (DA) neurotransmission may then respond to environmental events depending on their saliency, orienting the subsequent responses of the organism to both positive and negative stimuli. Here we examined the involvement of DA neurotransmission in the human response to pain, a robust physical and emotional stressor across species.

Author(s): 
Scott, David J.
Heitzeg, Mary M.
Koeppe, Robert A.
Stohler, Christian S.
Zubieta, Jon-Kar

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