Dosage Forms

Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVES: Artemisinin-derivative drugs are widely used to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria and very few studies have investigated the quality of these medicines in Africa. We analysed the active ingredient contents of artemisinin-derivative drugs marketed in Kenya and DR Congo. METHODS: We analysed tablets, capsules, dry suspensions and injections (IM) containing either artemether (AM), arteether (AE), artesunate (ARS) or dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The content of active ingredients and preservatives was determined quantitatively using validated HPLC-UV methods.

Author(s): 
Atemnkeng, Magnus A.
De Cock, Katelijne
Plaizier-Vercammen, Jacqueline
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are several reports of sub-standard and counterfeit antimalarial drugs circulating in the markets of developing countries; we aimed to review the literature for the African continent. METHODS: A search was conducted in PubMed in English using the medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: 'Antimalarials/analysis'[MeSH] OR 'Antimalarials/standards'[MeSH] AND 'Africa'[MeSH]' to include articles published up to and including 26 February 2007.

Author(s): 
Amin, A. A.
Kokwaro, G. O.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Resistance to conventional antimalarials triggered off new policies to circumvent the devastating consequences of malaria especially in the trans-Saharan Africa. The use of artemisinin-based combinations as first line drug in treatment of uncomplicated malaria was then advocated and adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO). In Nigeria, this new policy has witnessed a surge in the number of circulating brands of such combinations.

Author(s): 
Esimone, C. O.
Omeje, E. O.
Okoye, F. B. C.
Obonga, W. O.
Onah, B. U.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

A fixed-dose pediatric formulation of artesunate and mefloquine (Artequin Pediatric) has been developed. In this open, non-comparative study in Cameroonian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the safety and efficacy of this formulation was tested, with a particular emphasis on the risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events (AEs). In total, 220 subjects, weighing between 10 and 20 kg, were enrolled; 213 qualified for analysis. Artesunate-mefloquine was given once daily for 3 days.

Author(s): 
Tietche, Felix
Chelo, David
Mina Ntoto, Njiki Kinkela
Djoukoue, Florence Minjiwa
Hatz, Christoph
Frey, Sarabel
Frentzel, Adrian
Trapp, Sonja
Zielonka, Roland
Mueller, Edgar A.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Paediatric drug formulations for artemisinin combination therapy (P-ACT) have been developed over the past few years and have been shown to improve the therapeutic management of young children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. This process was however not equally paralleled by a timely adoption of P-ACT in national and international treatment recommendations. National malaria programmes in sub-Saharan Africa have not yet widely embraced this new therapeutic tool. To which extent P-ACT is used in the field in sub-Saharan Africa is not known to date.

Author(s): 
Agnandji, Selidji T.
Kurth, Florian
Fernandes, Jose F.
Soulanoudjingar, Solange S.
Abossolo, Beatrice P.
Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain
Basra, Arti
González, Raquel
Kizito, Gondo
Mayengue, Pembe I.
Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz
Issifou, Saadou
Lell, Bertrand
Adegnika, Ayola A.
Ramharter, Michael
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Children are most vulnerable to malaria. A pyronaridine-artesunate pediatric granule formulation is being developed for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS: This phase III, multi-center, comparative, open-label, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial included patients aged ?12 years, bodyweight ?5 to <25 kg, with a reported history of fever at inclusion or in the previous 24 h and microscopically-confirmed uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.

Author(s): 
Kayentao, Kassoum
Doumbo, Ogobara K.
Pénali, Louis K.
Offianan, André T.
Bhatt, Kirana M.
Kimani, Joshua
Tshefu, Antoinette K.
Kokolomami, Jack H. T.
Ramharter, Michael
de Salazar, Pablo Martinez
Tiono, Alfred B.
Ouédraogo, Alphonse
Bustos, Maria Dorina G.
Quicho, Frederick
Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle
Duparc, Stephan
Shin, Chang-Sik
Fleckenstein, Lawrence
Publication Title: 
AAPS PharmSciTech

Artemisinin, a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, presents a low and erratic bioavailability upon oral administration. The aim of this work was to study an agglomerated powder dosage form for oral administration of artemisinin based on the artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin primary microparticles. These primary microparticles were prepared by spray-drying a water-methanol solution of artemisinin/?-cyclodextrin. ?-Cyclodextrin in spray-dried microparticles increased artemisinin water apparent solubility approximately sixfold.

Author(s): 
Balducci, Anna Giulia
Magosso, Enrico
Colombo, Gaia
Sonvico, Fabio
Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim
Yuen, Kah Hay
Bettini, Ruggero
Colombo, Paolo
Rossi, Alessandra
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to design an alternative solvent-free extraction method using the hydrophilic lipid Gelucire (polyethylene glycol glycerides) for herbal extraction and to confirm the efficacy of extraction using biological screening. METHODS: Bacopa monniera Linn. (BM) was selected for the study. Conventional methanolic extract (MEBM), Ayurvedic ghrita (AGBM) and lipid extracts (LEBM) were prepared and standardised by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC).

Author(s): 
Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan
Paradkar, Anant R.
Mahadik, Kakasaheb R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse

In the ongoing debates over medical marijuana, opponents often conflate the alleged risks of cannabis therapeutics with the acknowledged harms associated with smoking. Although smoking is the most widely used method of administering marijuana, it is not the only available means. This paper provides an account of the production, distribution, and administration of non-smokable cannabis products by members of a California health care collective, the Wo/Men's Alliance for Medical Marijuana.

Author(s): 
Chapkis, Wendy
Webb, Richard J.
Publication Title: 
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattered detection (ELSD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was employed to establish chemical fingerprint of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and to simultaneously determinate its seven major constituents, including cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cinobufagin, recibufogenin, and ginsenoside Rb1.

Author(s): 
Yan, Shi-Kai
Zhang, Wei-Dong
Liu, Run-Hui
Zhan, Yong-Cheng

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