Larval feeding with curcumin induces an extended health span with significantly increased median and maximum longevities in the adult fly. This phenotype is diet insensitive and shows no additive effect on longevity when combined with an adult dietary restriction (DR) diet, suggesting that curcumin and DR operate via the same or overlapping pathways for this trait. This treatment significantly slows the aging rate so that it is comparable with that of genetically selected long lived animals.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of prolonged feeding of dietary nucleotides (NTs), and to clarify the effect of NTs on life extension of Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: There were 50 Sprague-Dawley rats in each group (male:female ratio=1:1), which were fed diets supplemented with NTs at concentrations of 0%, 0.01%, 0.04%, 0.16% and 0.64% (wt/wt) from the age of 4 weeks until natural death. We investigated the moribundity and mortality, survival time, spontaneous tumor incidence, and serum oxidative status.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. RECENT FINDINGS: Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure.
There is current interest in increasing human vitamin D dietary intake without having to modify human eating habits. One method to increase human dietary vitamin D intake is to generate eggs with increased concentrations of vitamin D through high-concentration vitamin D feeding in the diets of laying hens. Although eggs can be produced with high concentrations of vitamin D, the consequences of these diets on hen performance and egg quality have not been validated.
Reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNAs and protein levels are substantially reduced in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Increasing evidence suggests that the observed down-regulation of reelin and GAD67 gene expression may be caused by dysfunction of the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms operative in cortical GABAergic interneurons.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Valproate (VPA) is an anti-epileptic and mood-stabilizing drug with a broad range of action and which mechanism of action still remains in part elusive. Recently the discovery that VPA modifies the epigenome increasing the transcriptional rate of target genes raises the issue of understanding the exact role of this mechanism. In this work we tested the possibility that VPA could modify the epigenome of lymphomonocytes (PBMC) obtained from epileptic patients chronically treated in monotherapy with VPA and phenobarbital.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Notwithstanding the considerable advances in the treatment options for schizophrenia, the cognitive symptoms in particular are not receptive to antipsychotic treatment and considered one of the main predictors for poor social and functional outcome of the disease. Recent findings in preclinical model systems indicate that epigenetic modulation might emerge as a promising target for the treatment of cognitive disorders.
Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia. The pharmacological actions of blonanserin are shown to be the antagonism of dopamine receptor 2 and serotonin receptors. However, its molecular mechanisms in brain cells have not been fully characterized. Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotic drugs and mood stabilizers show epigenetic effects on a wide range of genes in animal and cellular models. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis targeting 479,814 CpG sites of cultured human neuroblastoma cells administered with blonanserin.
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that glutamatergic tone in schizophrenia may vary as a function of illness duration or medication history. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the existing clinical trial database of pomaglumetad methionil (pomaglumetad) to demonstrate treatment response in targeted patient populations. METHODS: Results of the H8Y-MC-HBBM (HBBM) study and an integrated analysis based on five placebo-controlled trials were summarized.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium in drinking water may have a protective effect on suicide mortality. AIMS: To evaluate the association between local lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality at district level in Austria. METHOD: A nationwide sample of 6460 lithium measurements was examined for association with suicide rates per 100,000 population and suicide standardised mortality ratios across all 99 Austrian districts.