A sequence of models for the time evolution of one's happiness in response to external events is described. These models with added nonlinearities can produce stable oscillations and chaos even without external events. Potential implications for psychotherapy and a personal approach to life are discussed.
Flunitrazepam, a derivative of benzodiazepine was used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in 933 patients. The induction dose was from 1,786 to 2,053 mg. The total dose of 2-2.66 mg was sufficient for maintenance of hypnosis for about 2 hours. The undesirable side effects were very rare. The average time of hypnosis after a single dose of flunitrazepam was 50.1 sec. The sedative action of the drug lasted for some time after regaining of consciousness. In most patients there was no need for administration of analgetics during first 24 hours after the operation.
Effects of ifenprodil tartrate, a potent vasodilator, on the autonomic, peripheral and central nerve system were studied in experimental animals. In isolated vas deferens of guinea pigs, the contraction in response to noradrenaline and sympathetic nerve stimulation was competetively antagonized by ifenprodil 10(-7)--10(-5) M (pA2: 7.69 against noradrenaline). Ifenprodil (50 approximately 1,000 mug/kg i.v.) inhibited the contraction of cat nictitating membrane and dog urinary bladder induced by sympathetic nerve stimulation.
Eighty-five patients ranging from 12 h to 7 years of age were included in this study. In the first group 35 cases received ketamine, gallamine and oxygen for surgery on the great vessels. Ketamine provided satisfactory analgesia and amnesia. Heart rate did not change significantly. Gallamine gave additional safety in the prevention of bradycardia. One hundred per cent oxygen increased oxygen saturation and made more oxygen available for the tissues. The combination secured favorable conditions even in cases of sevre right to left shunt.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The pharmacokinetics of sodium-gamma-hydroxybutyrate (NaGHB) have been examined as functions of dose and route of administration. The elimination of NaGHB appeared to be controlled by a capacity-limited process which can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Within one day after a single IP injection of cedar sesquiterpenes into mice, pentobarbital sleeptime was reduced by 40%. The estimated ED50 is 50 mg terpenes/kg body weight. The mice recovered from this terpene-induced reduction in the strength of hypnosis within 6 days after the terpene injection. The potency of the terpenes, the rapidity of their action, and the duration of their effectiveness in modulating a drug response suggest their usefulness as a pharmacological tool.
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology
Cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) changes induced by ethanol (4.3 and 1.4 g/kg, ip), pentobarbital (50 and 16 mg/kg), and nicotine (1.0 g/kg) were examined in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice that were genetically selected for differential sleep times induced by a hypnotic dosage of ethanol. Ethanol (4.3 g/kg) caused EEG changes that paralleled the behavioral differences, whereas no differences between selected lines were observed following the activating dose (1.4 g/kg).