Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine D1/5 receptors modulate long- and short-term neuronal plasticity that may contribute to cognitive functions. Synergistic to synaptic strength modulation, direct postsynaptic D1/5 receptor activation also modulates voltage-dependent ionic currents that regulate spike firing, thus altering the neuronal input-output relationships in a process called long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE).
We previously demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation both produced antinociception and attenuated intrathecal (i.t.) morphine analgesia, suggesting that EA is capable of inducing two opposing systems, that is, opioid and anti-opioid mechanisms. This study examined the involvement of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the anti-opioid effects following EA in the spinal cord. EA was applied to commonly used acupoints for antinociception, ST-36 located 5-mm lateral to the anterior tubercle of the tibia, and analgesia was assessed by the hind-paw pressure test in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
For ondansetron, dexamethasone, and droperidol (when used for prophylaxis), each is estimated to reduce risk of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) by approximately 25%. Current consensus guidelines denote that patients with 0-1 risk factors still have a 10-20% risk of encountering PONV, but do not yet advocate routine prophylaxis for all patients with 10-20% risk. In ambulatory surgery, however, multimodal prophylaxis has gained favor, and our previously published experience with routine prophylaxis has yielded PONV rates below 10%.
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care in proton pump inhibitor failure is to double the proton pump inhibitor dose, despite limited therapeutic gain. Aims To determine the efficacy of adding acupuncture vs. doubling the proton pump inhibitor dose in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patients who failed symptomatically on proton pump inhibitors once daily. METHODS: Thirty patients with classic heartburn symptoms who continued to be symptomatic on standard-dose proton pump inhibitors were enrolled into the study.