Double-Blind Method

Publication Title: 
Hormones and Behavior

This study examined if the prosocial effects of oxytocin (OT) extend from individuals to a generalized other who is in need. Participants played a series of economic games to earn money and were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their earnings to charity. OT did not significantly increase the decision to donate, but among the 36% of participants who did donate, people infused with OT were found to donate 48% more to charity than those given a placebo.

Author(s): 
Barraza, Jorge A.
McCullough, Michael E.
Ahmadi, Sheila
Zak, Paul J.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Androstadienone, a component of male sweat, has been suggested to function as a human pheromone, an airborne chemical signal causing specific responses in conspecifics. In earlier studies androstadienone has been reported to increase attraction, affect subjects' mood, cortisol levels and activate brain areas linked to social cognition, among other effects. However, the existing psychological evidence is still relatively scarce, especially regarding androstadienone's effects on male behaviour.

Author(s): 
Huoviala, Paavo
Rantala, Markus J.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone administration on trust and reciprocity using a double-blind randomized control design.

Author(s): 
Boksem, Maarten A. S.
Mehta, Pranjal H.
Van den Bergh, Bram
van Son, Veerle
Trautmann, Stefan T.
Roelofs, Karin
Smidts, Ale
Sanfey, Alan G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)

BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces "prosocial" effects that contribute to its recreational use. Few studies have examined the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms by which MDMA produces these effects. Here we examined the effect of MDMA on a specific prosocial effect, i.e. generosity, using a task in which participants make decisions about whether they or another person will receive money (Welfare Trade-Off Task; WTT). METHODS: The project included one study without drug administration and one with MDMA.

Author(s): 
Kirkpatrick, Matthew
Delton, Andrew W.
Robertson, Theresa E.
de Wit, Harriet
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the informed consent process for a clinical trial of intravenous doxycycline for rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about the consent process at baseline and 16 weeks following enrollment in a clinical trial. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 30) affirmed voluntary participation in the parent trial. Participants acknowledged hope and altruism as reasons for entering the trial more than expectation of personal benefit or outside influences.

Author(s): 
Criscione, Lisa G.
Sugarman, Jeremy
Sanders, Linda
Pisetsky, David S.
St Clair, E. William
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Existing correlative evidence suggests that sex hormones may affect economic behavior such as risk taking and reciprocal fairness. To test this hypothesis we conducted a double-blind randomized study. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years were randomly allocated to 4 weeks of treatment with estrogen, testosterone, or placebo. At the end of the treatment period, the subjects participated in a series of economic experiments that measure altruism, reciprocal fairness, trust, trustworthiness, and risk attitudes.

Author(s): 
Zethraeus, Niklas
Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana
Ellingsen, Tore
von Schoultz, Bo
Hirschberg, Angelica LindÈn
Johannesson, Magnus
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

Humans regulate intergroup conflict through parochial altruism; they self-sacrifice to contribute to in-group welfare and to aggress against competing out-groups. Parochial altruism has distinct survival functions, and the brain may have evolved to sustain and promote in-group cohesion and effectiveness and to ward off threatening out-groups. Here, we have linked oxytocin, a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, to the regulation of intergroup conflict.

Author(s): 
De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Greer, Lindred L.
Handgraaf, Michel J. J.
Shalvi, Shaul
Van Kleef, Gerben A.
Baas, Matthijs
Ten Velden, Femke S.
Van Dijk, Eric
Feith, Sander W. W.
Publication Title: 
Psychopharmacology

RATIONALE: Research suggests the experimental manipulation of oxytocin facilitates positive interactions, cooperation, and trust. The mechanism by which oxytocin influences social behavior is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We explored the hypothesis that oxytocin alters how people perceive themselves, which could be one mechanism by which oxytocin promotes prosocial behavior. METHOD: In a between-subject, randomized, and double-blind experiment, 100 university students received a 24 I.U.

Author(s): 
Cardoso, Christopher
Ellenbogen, Mark A.
Linnen, Anne-Marie
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

In today's increasingly interconnected world, deciding with whom and at what level to cooperate becomes a matter of increasing importance as societies become more globalized and large-scale cooperation becomes a viable means of addressing global issues. This tension can play out via competition between local (e.g. within a group) and global (e.g., between groups) interests. Despite research highlighting factors influencing cooperation in such multi-layered situations, their biological basis is not well understood.

Author(s): 
Israel, Salomon
Weisel, Ori
Ebstein, Richard P.
Bornstein, Gary
Publication Title: 
AIDS patient care and STDs

In 2010, the iPrEx study demonstrated efficacy of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men. Adherence to study product was critical for PrEP efficacy, and varied considerably, with FTC/TDF detection rates highest in the United States.

Author(s): 
Gilmore, Hailey J.
Liu, Albert
Koester, Kimberly Ann
Amico, K. Rivet
McMahan, Vanessa
Goicochea, Pedro
Vargas, Lorena
Lubensky, David
Buchbinder, Susan
Grant, Robert

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