Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates))
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) specific inhibitors are anti-inflammatory agents that have also shown to be useful in anticancer therapy. The effects of chebulagic acid (CA), a benzopyran tannin from Terminalia chebula having COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitory properties, on the sensitivity of doxorubicin (Dox) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 were studied in the present investigation. CA increased the accumulation of Dox in a concentration dependant manner and also enhanced the cytotoxicity of Dox in HepG2 cells by 20 folds.
Vasculature is essential for the sustained growth of solid tumors and metastases. Tumor cells surviving vascular-disruptive therapeutic intervention (especially those present at the tumor rim) can contribute to tumor regrowth. The aim was to strengthen, by carrier-mediated delivery of a chemotherapeutic, the curative effects of a bifunctional anti-vascular oligopeptide capable of inducing vascular shutdown and tumor shrinkage. For the in vitro experiments and animal therapy, ACDCRGDCFC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)(2) peptide (900 microM in D-PBSA, i.e.
Reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNAs and protein levels are substantially reduced in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia. Increasing evidence suggests that the observed down-regulation of reelin and GAD67 gene expression may be caused by dysfunction of the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms operative in cortical GABAergic interneurons.
The epigenetic down-regulation of genes is emerging as a possible underlying mechanism of the GABAergic neuron dysfunction in schizophrenia. For example, evidence has been presented to show that the promoters associated with reelin and GAD67 are down-regulated as a consequence of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-mediated hypermethylation. Using neuronal progenitor cells to study this regulation, we have previously demonstrated that DNMT inhibitors coordinately increase reelin and GAD67 mRNAs.
BACKGROUND: A major obstacle for successful cancer treatment often is the development of drug resistance in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drugs with improved efficacy against tumor cells and with less toxicity on normal cells. Artesunate (ART), a powerful anti-malarial herbal compound, has been shown to inhibit growth of various tumor cell lines in vitro and of xenografted Kaposi's sarcoma in mice in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ART exerts its cytotoxicity have not been elucidated.
Doxorubicin efficacy in cancer therapy is hampered by the dose-dependent side effects, which may be overcome by reducing the drug's dose and increasing its efficacy. In the present work, we suggest that the activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway and of nitric-oxide (NO) synthase increases the doxorubicin efficacy in human colon cancer HT29 cells.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Artemisinin is an antimalarial drug exerting pleiotropic effects, such as the inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(++)-ATPase (SERCA) of P. falciparum.
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
Artesunate is a derivate of artemisinin that is both an antimalarial agent and acts cytotoxically on tumor cells. Despite its therapeutic use, its in vivo genotoxic potential has still not been evaluated. This study, therefore, was an investigation into the effects of a single oral administration of artesunate with an in vivo comet assay that analyzed leukocytes from peripheral blood and liver cells, and a micronucleus (MN) assay of bone marrow cells from male Swiss mice. The artesunate was administered by oral gavage at doses of 5, 50 and 100 mg/kg.
BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibits potent anti-malarial and anti-cancer activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of a combination of DHA and doxorubicin (DOX) on human breast cancer cells. METHODS: MTT assay and the combination index (CI) were used to show the anti-proliferative effects and calculate the synergism potential, respectively. Flow cytometry assay was used to detect apoptosis and the intracellular accumulation of DOX. JC-1 staining was used to determine the mitochondrial membrane potential.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine = Chung I Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan / Sponsored by All-China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of artemisinin against proteinuria and glomerular filtration barrier damage in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy, and the potential mechanism underpinned the action.