Drug Administration Schedule

Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the level of anaesthetic depth has not been studied previously in a randomized way. METHODS: We assessed the effect of CPB on the propofol needed to maintain a fixed bispectral index score, and on the recovery from anaesthesia in 22 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with CPB (on-pump) compared with 18 patients operated on without CPB (off-pump). Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and alfentanil.

Author(s): 
Ahonen, J.
Sahlman, A.
Yli-Hankala, A.
Eriksson, H.
Nemlander, A.
Rämö, J.
Salmenperä, M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

In a previous study, we found that orally administered Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induced hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, especially the CYP2B type. This fact suggested that GBE influenced the availability and safety of drugs that were metabolized via CYP2B type enzymes. To confirm this possibility, in this study we examined the effect of feeding a 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% GBE diet for 2 weeks on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological action of phenobarbital, which is known to be metabolized by CYP2B in Wistar rats. The feeding of GBE markedly shortened the sleeping time in rats.

Author(s): 
Kubota, Yoko
Kobayashi, Kyoko
Tanaka, Naoko
Nakamura, Kazuki
Kunitomo, Masaru
Umegaki, Keizo
Shinozuka, Kazumasa
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: In view of widespread claims of efficacy, we examined the evidence regarding the effects of hypnosis for pain relief during childbirth. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and the Cochrane library 2004.1 were searched for clinical trials where hypnosis during pregnancy and childbirth was compared with a non-hypnosis intervention, no treatment or placebo. Reference lists from retrieved papers and hypnotherapy texts were also examined. There were no language restrictions.

Author(s): 
Cyna, A. M.
McAuliffe, G. L.
Andrew, M. I.
Publication Title: 
Anaesthesia

Target-controlled infusion systems have been shown to result in the administration of larger doses of propofol, which may result in delayed emergence and recovery from anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to investigate if this was due to a difference in the depth of hypnosis (using the bispectral index monitoring) between the manual and target controlled systems of administration. Fifty unpremedicated patients undergoing elective surgery were randomly allocated to have their anaesthesia maintained with manual or target-controlled propofol infusion schemes.

Author(s): 
Breslin, D. S.
Mirakhur, R. K.
Reid, J. E.
Kyle, A.
Publication Title: 
HNO

Two groups of tinnitus patients (n=93) were recruited, one of which was treated with standard infusion therapy and further acute medical intervention, while the other obtained an additional psychotherapeutic intervention. Questionnaires and interviews were taken at beginning of the treatment, and 9 days and 3 years after treatment. The accompanying psychotherapeutic intervention consisted primarily of client-centered counseling, guided relaxation techniques from clinical hypnosis, and some standard and tinnitus-related methods for a better coping with stress.

Author(s): 
Schildt, A.
Tönnies, S.
Böttcher, S.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: Sedation of the critically ill patient has several components including hypnosis and analgesia. Hypnotic-based sedation (HBS), where midazolam and/or propofol are used, with morphine or another analgesic added as needed has been common. The advent of remifentanil has allowed greater use of analgesia-based sedation (ABS) where relief of discomfort from the tracheal tube or pain are the important objectives, and hypnosis is given as necessary. Method. We compared HBS and ABS (remifentanil-based sedation) within a general intensive care unit (ICU).

Author(s): 
Park, G.
Lane, M.
Rogers, S.
Bassett, P.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: The loss of cholinergic neurones in the basal forebrain has been shown to correlate to the extent of cognitive dysfunction during ageing in humans and to the hypnotic potency of propofol in animal models. We examined how the preoperative cognitive status, as assessed by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), may interact with propofol consumption during anaesthesia in the elderly. METHODS: In a prospective study, we recruited 41 patients (65-99 yr) undergoing surgery for hip fracture. Femoral nerve block was performed for analgesia.

Author(s): 
Laalou, F.-Z.
Egard, M.
Guillot, M.
Noll, E.
Taglang, G.
Pain, L.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pediatrics

Mechanically ventilated pediatric intensive care patients usually receive an analgesic and sedative to keep them comfortable and safe. However, common drugs like fentanyl and midazolam have a long context sensitive half time, resulting in prolonged sedation and an unpredictable extubation time. Children often awake slowly and struggle against the respirator, although their respiratory drive and their airway reflexes are not yet sufficient for extubation. In this pilot study, we replaced fentanyl and midazolam at the final phase of the weaning process with remifentanil and propofol.

Author(s): 
Welzing, Lars
Vierzig, Anne
Junghaenel, Shino
Eifinger, Frank
Oberthuer, Andre
Trieschmann, Uwe
Roth, Bernhard
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Artemether (Art, beta-methyl ether of artemisinin) first synthesized by Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is effective against not only malaria but also schistosomiasis. When rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae for 7 d were treated ig with Art 10 mg.kg-1, the total worm reduction rates were 74.6-76.7%. If Art (10 mg.kg-1) was given once weekly after the first treatment for 3-4 times, the total worm reduction rate was > 98%, and most of the rabbits were free from female worms.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
You, J. Q.
Mei, J. Y.
Jiao, P. Y.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

To study the histopathological change of the liver of the hosts treated with artemether (Art) or praziquantel (Pra) in early stage after infection with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. METHODS: Dogs infected once with schistosome cercariae were treated ig with Art 10 mg.kg-1 or Art capsule (ArtC) 15 mg.kg-1 on d 7, or praziquantel (Pra) 30-40 mg.kg-1 on d 21 after infection, followed by the repeated dosing once every 1 or 2 wk for 2-4 times.

Author(s): 
Xiao, S. H.
Yang, Y. Q.
Zhang, C. W.
You, J. Q.

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