BACKGROUND: The use of drug combinations, including non-artemisinin-based and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), is a novel strategy that enhances therapeutic efficacy and delays the emergence of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Its use is strongly recommended in most sub-Saharan African countries, namely Cameroon, where resistance to chloroquine is widespread and antifolate resistance is emerging. METHODS: Studies were conducted in Cameroonian children with acute uncomplicated P.
BACKGROUND: Previous efforts to eradicate malaria parasites, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, have failed in part due to the emergence of drug resistant parasites and mosquitoes resistant to insecticides. Using an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) that kills parasites quickly, a strategy was designed to eliminate the source of transmission by mass treatment of human populations in malaria-endemic areas Cambodia. METHODS: A combination drug of artemisinin and piperaquine given with low doses of primaquine was used to eliminate all stages of parasites from human carriers.
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection, the parasite responsible for the majority of its malaria burden. Chloroquine resistance in P. vivax is emerging in Asia. Therapeutic responses across Afghanistan have not been evaluated in detail. METHODS: Between July 2007 and February 2009, an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in patients aged three months and over with slide-confirmed P. vivax mono-infections was conducted.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of pre-season treatment with single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) on subsequent malaria morbidity in under-fives. METHODS: A cohort of 156 children was enrolled for longitudinal follow-up. Children received curative therapy with SP or AL, and a third group received no treatment. Participants were home-visited twice a week with blood smears taken from children with fever (axillary T° ? 37.5 °C) or history of fever.
BACKGROUND: Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas.
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination treatment. Some antimalarials have altered pharmacokinetics in pregnancy. Pregnant women in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and matched nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated with a total of 6.4 mg/kg of body weight dihydroartemisinin and 51.2 mg/kg piperaquine once daily for 3 days. Venous blood samples were drawn at prespecified time points over 9 weeks. Plasma dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
This research describes the use of novel antimalarial combinations of the new artemisinin derivative artemiside, a 10-alkylamino artemisinin. It is a stable, highly crystalline compound that is economically prepared from dihydroartemisinin in a one-step process. Artemiside activity was more pronounced than that of any antimalarial drug in use, both in Plasmodium falciparum culture and in vivo in a murine malaria model depicting cerebral malaria (CM).
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is increasingly used to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in children and pregnant women. The efficacy of IPT depends on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the antimalarial drugs used. Healthy adult male volunteers whose occupation put them at high risk of malaria on the Northwest border of Thailand were randomized to receive a 3-day-treatment dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine monthly (DPm) or every 2 months (DPalt) or an identical placebo with or without fat (6.4 g/dose) over a 9-month period.
Artemisinin-naphthoquine (ART-NQ) is a fixed-dose coformulated antimalarial therapy recommended as a single-dose treatment and marketed in Papua New Guinea among other tropical countries. We conducted a tolerability, safety, and efficacy study of ART-NQ for Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 12 years with uncomplicated malaria, comparing single-dose ART-NQ (15 and 6 mg/kg of body weight) given with water (group 1; n = 15), single-dose ART-NQ (22 and 9 mg/kg) given with milk (group 2; n = 17), or two daily doses of 22 and 9 mg/kg given with water (group 3; n = 16).