Jiawey siwu (JS) is a modified formula of siwu with the addition of Ginseng Radix and Eucommiae Cortex. We studied the CNS effect of JS on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in ICR mice after acute oral administration. We also investigated the motor activity and exercise performance effects of JS in SD rats after subchronic (12 days) and chronic (8 weeks) oral administration with an activity cage and rotarod, respectively. The duration of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis was significantly decreased in mice after acute oral administration of 0.21, 1.05 or 4.2 g/kg JS.
Piperaquine is being developed as a long-acting component in artemisinin combination therapies. It was highly active in vitro and drug interaction studies showed that dihydroartemisinin combinations with piperaquine, chloroquine, and amodiaquine were indifferent tending toward antagonism. Competitive uptake of radiolabeled chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin in combination with other antimalarials was observed.
Artemisinin loses its antimalarial activity on prolonged exposure to erythrocytes, especially alpha-thalassemic erythrocytes. In this report, we show that the major artemisinin-inactivating factor in cytosol of normal erythrocytes was heat-labile but a heat-stable factor from alpha-thalassemic cells also played a significant role in reducing artemisinin effectiveness, which was shown to be heme released from hemoglobin (Hb).
Peroxidic antimalarials such as the semisynthetic artemisinins are critically important in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Nevertheless, their peroxide bond-dependent mode of action is still not well understood. Using combination experiments with cultured Plasmodium falciparum cells, we investigated the interactions of the nitroxide radical spin trap, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), and four of its analogs with artemisinin and the ozonide drug development candidate OZ277.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth.
Cystone, a polyherbal ayurvedic preparation, was found to protect rats partially but significantly against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity, when given intraperitonially 1 h before cisplatin. At 500 and 1000 microg/ml, it also inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by cisplatin in renal cortical slices by 62.7 and 71.6%, respectively. The rats pretreated with cystone (1000 mg/kg i.p.) had significantly lower blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (33.8 and 0.92 mg/dl, respectively) compared to cisplatin alone (51.5 and 1.41 mg/dl, respectively).
The Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Trial found that aspirin, but not folic acid, reduced recurrence of colorectal adenomas. This study examined whether treatment effects on inflammation markers explained the trial results. The trial had a factorial design with three aspirin (placebo, 81, and 325 mg/d) and two folic acid (placebo and 1 mg/d) groups.
Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro.
The antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol have been proposed to play a beneficial chemopreventive role against cancer. However, emerging data also indicate that it may exert contrasting effects on the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments when given as dietary supplement, being in that case harmful for patients. This dual role of α-tocopherol and, in particular, its effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs remains poorly documented.