Drug Contamination

Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Systematic assessment of the in vitro research on high potency effects. METHOD: Publications of experiments were collected through databases, experts, previous reviews, citation tracking. INCLUSION CRITERIA: stepwise agitated dilutions <10(-23); cells or molecules from human or animal. Experiments were assessed with the modified SAPEH score. RESULTS: From 75 publications, 67 experiments (1/3 of them replications) were evaluated. Nearly 3/4 of them found a high potency effect, and 2/3 of those 18 that scored 6 points or more and controlled contamination.

Author(s): 
Witt, Claudia M.
Bluth, Michael
Albrecht, Henning
Weisshuhn, Thorolf E. R.
Baumgartner, Stephan
Willich, Stefan N.
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.

Author(s): 
Newton, Paul N.
Fernández, Facundo M.
Plançon, Aline
Mildenhall, Dallas C.
Green, Michael D.
Ziyong, Li
Christophel, Eva Maria
Phanouvong, Souly
Howells, Stephen
McIntosh, Eric
Laurin, Paul
Blum, Nancy
Hampton, Christina Y.
Faure, Kevin
Nyadong, Leonard
Soong, C. W. Ray
Santoso, Budiono
Zhiguang, Wang
Newton, John
Palmer, Kevin
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Piperaquine, 1,3-bis-[4-(7-chloroquinolyl-4)-piperazinyl-1]-propane, is an anti-malarial compound belonging to the 4-aminoquinolines, which has received renewed interest in treatment of drug resistant falciparum malaria in artemisinin-based combination therapy with dihydroartemisinin. The impurity profile of this drug product is paid an ever-increasing attention. However, there were few published studies of the complete characterization of related products or impurities in piperaquine phosphate bulk and forced degradation samples.

Author(s): 
Yan, Fang
Liu, Jie
Zeng, Xuefang
Zhang, Yuan
Hang, Taijun
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences

Lead poisoning following intake of Ayurvedic medication is one of the recent areas of concern. We report a case of a 58-year-old type II diabetic man who was stable with diet control and 30 mg pioglitazone per day. He took Ayurvedic medication for generalized weakness and developed peripheral neuropathy following its intake. He was found to have high blood and urinary lead levels and was diagnosed to have subacute lead poisoning. He was treated with d-Penicillamine for 8 weeks, following which his lead levels became normal.

Author(s): 
Singh, Surjit
Mukherjee, K. K.
Gill, K. D.
Flora, S. J. S.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

In Ayurveda and Thai traditional medicines, material from Coscinium fenestratum is commonly prescribed as active ingredients with diverse therapeutic purposes. However, C. fenestratum is also a seriously endangered medicinal liana. Thus, its crude material is very rare and is being substituted with substances from Arcangelisia flava or Fibraurea tinctoria (Menispermaceae), which have high morphological similarity.

Author(s): 
Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith
Komatsu, Katsuko
Zhu, Shu
Vajragupta, Opa
Leelamanit, Wichet
Publication Title: 
Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

An analytical method has been described for the determination of mercury using a carbon paste electrode. Conditions for the preparation of the carbon paste electrode were optimized for low background current in order to use it for the determination of ultra trace levels of mercury. The carbon paste electrode was found to be a good electrode material for the determination of mercury. The optimized pH for the determination was in the range of 2.5 to 3.5. The three sigma detection limit of mercury was obtained as 0.095 µg L(-1).

Author(s): 
Sahoo, S.
Satpati, A. K.
Reddy, A. V. R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Hematology & Oncology

Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation.

Author(s): 
Gunturu, Krishna S.
Nagarajan, Priyadharsini
McPhedran, Peter
Goodman, Thomas R.
Hodsdon, Michael E.
Strout, Matthew P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

Complementary and alternative medications, including the use of herbal medications, have become quite popular in the USA. Yerberias are found throughout the southwest and specialize in selling Hispanic herbal products. The products sold in these stores are not regulated by any governmental agency. Previous reports have found Ayurvedic medications contain high levels of lead, mercury, and arsenic. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of heavy metal contaminants sold at Yerberia stores in the southwest.

Author(s): 
Levine, Michael
Mihalic, Jason
Ruha, Anne-Michelle
French, Robert N. E.
Brooks, Daniel E.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs.

Author(s): 
Genuis, Stephen J.
Schwalfenberg, Gerry
Siy, Anna-Kristen J.
Rodushkin, Ilya
Publication Title: 
Lancet

Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs.

Author(s): 
Fugh-Berman, A.

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