Drug Resistance

Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is well-recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen, however, due to their intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics, treatment options are limited. Synergistic effects between antibiotics and medicinal plants, particularly their active components, have intensively been studied as alternative approaches. METHODS: Fifty-one ethanol extracts obtained from 44 different selected medicinal plant species were tested for resistance modifying agents (RMAs) of novobiocin against A. baumannii using growth inhibition assay.

Author(s): 
Phatthalung, Pinanong Na
Chusri, Sasitorn
Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Microbiology

AIMS: In this study, an attempt has been made to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds from hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits effective against multidrug-resistant uropathogens and also to elucidate the influence of metal ions on the growth inhibitory activity of isolated compounds against the studied bacteria, if any. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bioassay-guided fractionation and extensive spectrometric analyses (FT-IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR and ESI-MS) were used to isolate and characterize the bioactive compound.

Author(s): 
Bag, A.
Bhattacharyya, S. K.
Chattopadhyay, R. R.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ling
Zhou, Chun
He, Zhen
Wang, Zheng-Guang
Wang, Jia-Lin
Wang, Yu-Feng
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

We transformed the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila by microinjection of circular plasmids containing the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). In the somatic macronucleus of Tetrahymena, the rDNA is in the form of linear palindromic molecules. The rDNA molecules from the C3 strain have a replication advantage over rDNA from both B strain and the C3 rDNA mutant rmm1. We constructed two circular plasmids carrying replication origin sequences from C3 rDNA and a point mutation (Pmr) in the 17S rRNA gene that confers resistance to the antibiotic paromomycin.

Author(s): 
Yu, G. L.
Hasson, M.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT; SERT; SLC6A4) has been suggested to pharmacogenetically drive interindividual differences in antidepressant treatment response. In the present analysis, a 'pharmaco-epigenetic' approach was applied by investigating the influence of DNA methylation patterns in the 5-HTT transcriptional control region on antidepressant treatment response.

Author(s): 
Domschke, Katharina
Tidow, Nicola
Schwarte, Kathrin
Deckert, J¸rgen
Lesch, Klaus-Peter
Arolt, Volker
Zwanzger, Peter
Baune, Bernhard T.
Publication Title: 
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery

INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common psychiatric disorder which can be devastating to affected patients, if not adequately treated. Although effective drugs are presently available for treating BD, many patients do not respond adequately. There are also problems with the current management of patients with this disorder: drug-resistant BD, rapid-cycling BD and cognitive decline in BD patients despite drug therapy. In this context, new and more effective drugs will be valuable in the clinical management of BD patients.

Author(s): 
Peedicayil, Jacob
Publication Title: 
Brain Research. Brain Research Protocols

The exogenous administration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a constituent of the mammalian brain where it likely functions as a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator, exerts a number of pharmacological effects, including sedation and hypnosis. The present paper describes a procedure for selective breeding of two rat lines which markedly differ in sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB. Selective breeding originated from Wistar rats showing opposite sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of 1 g/kg GHB (i.p.).

Author(s): 
Lobina, C.
Colombo, G.
Brunetti, G.
Diaz, G.
Melis, S.
Pani, M.
Serra, S.
Vacca, G.
Gessa, G. L.
Carai, M. A.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

We used two mouse lines with glycine receptor mutations to determine whether glycine receptors might play an important role in anesthetic responses in vivo. Spastic (spA) mutants were slightly more sensitive (P = 0.02) to enflurane in the loss-of-righting reflex assay (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 1.17 +/- 0.06 atm for controls versus 0.97 +/- 0.06 atm for spA) but were also substantially more resistant (P = 0.01) to enflurane in the tail clamp assay (EC(50) = 1.96 +/- 0.10 atm for controls versus 2.58 +/- 0.25 atm for spA).

Author(s): 
Quinlan, Joseph J.
Ferguson, Carolyn
Jester, Katherine
Firestone, Leonard L.
Homanics, Gregg E.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

The present study investigated whether the differential sensitivity of selectively bred gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R) rats to GHB- and baclofen-induced sedation/hypnosis generalized to the motor incoordinating effect of the two drugs. To this aim, GHB-S and GHB-R rats were tested on a Rota-Rod after the acute administration of GHB (100-500 mg/kg, i.p.) and baclofen (1.25-5 mg/kg, i.p.).

Author(s): 
Lobina, Carla
Colombo, Giancarlo
Gessa, Gian Luigi
Carai, Mauro A. M.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research. Brain Research Protocols

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R) rats have been selectively bred for their opposite sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB. This opposite sensitivity has been found to generalize to the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen. A control line [named GHB-control (GHB-C)] has been derived from the foundation stock of GHB-S and GHB-R rats. GHB-C rats have been bred without any evaluation of their sensitivity to GHB.

Author(s): 
Lobina, Carla
Colombo, Giancarlo
Orrù, Alessandro
Maccioni, Paola
Gessa, Gian Luigi
Carai, Mauro A. M.

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