Drug Resistance, Microbial

Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem. Once confined primarily to hospitals it is now increasingly common in primary care. The prevalence of resistant bacteria is rising, and organisms resistant to almost all antibiotics have been identified. The main causes are indiscriminate prescribing and the use of antibiotics in animal feeds and other agricultural applications. Policies to restrict use of antibiotics have had limited success. Homeopathy may have a role to play in combating the development of antibiotic resistance.

Author(s): 
Viksveen, Petter
Publication Title: 
Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine

Medicinal herbs, Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia chebula, and Rhus javanica, with anti-herpes simplex virus therapeutic activity, inhibited replication of human cytomegalovirus(CMV) and murine CMV(MCMV) in vitro. These anti-CMV activities were examined in an MCMV infection model using immunosuppressed mice. Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Terminalia chebula significantly suppressed MCMV yields in lungs of treated mice compared with water treatment.

Author(s): 
Shiraki, K.
Yukawa, T.
Kurokawa, M.
Kageyama, S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

We have determined the complete sequence of the nuclear gene encoding the small subunit (17 S) rRNA of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The gene encodes an RNA molecule which is 1753 nucleotides in length. The sequence of the Tetrahymena small subunit rRNA is homologous to those of other eukaryotes, and the predicted secondary structure for the molecule includes features which are characteristic of eukaryotic small subunit rRNAs.

Author(s): 
Spangler, E. A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

We have determined the complete sequence of the nuclear gene encoding the small subunit (17 S) rRNA of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The gene encodes an RNA molecule which is 1753 nucleotides in length. The sequence of the Tetrahymena small subunit rRNA is homologous to those of other eukaryotes, and the predicted secondary structure for the molecule includes features which are characteristic of eukaryotic small subunit rRNAs.

Author(s): 
Spangler, E. A.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

A mutation that confers resistance to the drug paromomycin is shown to be in the structural gene that codes for the ribosomal RNA in Tetrahymena. This observation was made by exploiting a variant of the ribosomal DNA that distorts amplification of this locus when a new somatic nucleus develops during conjugation. Because the allelic forms of this locus have a restriction endonuclease site polymorphism, it was possible to correlate drug resistance with presence of a specific allele. The genetic results have been confirmed by sequence analysis (presented elsewhere).

Author(s): 
Bruns, P. J.
Katzen, A. L.
Martin, L.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin (Hb) H and/or Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes in vitro was relatively more resistant than that infecting normal erythrocytes to artesunate and chloroquine, while the sensitivity to pyrimethamine was unchanged. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for artesunate in HbH (alpha-thal 1/alpha-thal 2), HbH (alpha-thal 1/Hb Constant Spring), and homozygous Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes were 4.5 +/- 2.8, 8.5 +/- 3.2, and 2.6 +/- 1.6 nM compared with 0.82 +/- 0.35 nM in normal erythrocytes (P less than 0.002 for all three cases).

Author(s): 
Yuthavong, Y.
Butthep, P.
Bunyaratvej, A.
Fucharoen, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

In most countries where malaria is endemic, P. falciparum malaria is on the rise. This is primarily due to the spread of drug-resistant strains. Drug resistance is mediated by spontaneous changes in the parasite genome that allow resistant parasites to escape the action of the drugs. The spread of drug resistance increases the transmission of malaria parasites. The consequences for the populations at risk are profound both in terms of consequences for health and economy. In order to halt the progression of drug resistance, we need to change the way antimalarials are used.

Author(s): 
Nosten, F.
Ashley, E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

The emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria represents a considerable challenge to controlling malaria. To date, malaria control has relied heavily on a comparatively small number of chemically related drugs, belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin derivatives been used but mostly in south east Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life-span of antimalarial drugs. Controlling resistance is key to ensuring that the investment put into developing new antimalarial drugs is not wasted.

Author(s): 
Olliaro, P. L.
Taylor, W. R.
Publication Title: 
International Journal for Parasitology

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the former first-line antimalarials chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine has reached critically high levels in many malaria-endemic regions. This has spurred the introduction of several new artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) that display excellent potency in treating drug-resistant malaria. Monitoring for the emergence of drug resistant P. falciparum is important for maximising the clinically effective lifespan of ACTs.

Author(s): 
Ekland, Eric H.
Fidock, David A.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of artemisinin-based combination and monotherapy by community members and the administrative practices of health professionals in treating malaria in Ghana. METHOD: This study is a community-based cross-sectional survey in 11 rural and urban areas in southern Ghana. Using the interviewer method, close-ended questionnaires were administered to community members. Similar questionnaires were also administered in health facilities, community pharmacies and licensed chemical shops.

Author(s): 
Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel
Ayi, Irene
Suzuki, Takashi
Otchere, Joseph
Kumagai, Takashi
Anyan, William K.
Asahi, Hiroko
Akao, Nobuaki
Wilson, Michael D.
Boakye, Daniel A.
Ohta, Nobuo

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