Drug Resistance, Multiple

Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed in 12 plants (L. inermis, Eucalyptus sp., H. antidysentrica, H. indicus, C. equistifolia. T. belerica, T. chebula, E. officinalis, C. sinensis, S.

Author(s): 
Ahmad, I.
Beg, A. Z.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica).

Author(s): 
Rani, Phulan
Khullar, Neeraj
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

"Triphala", the Ayurvedic wonder is used traditionally for the treatment of different types of diseases since antiquity. The hydroalcoholic extracts of the three components of Triphala powder demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria. Terminalia chebula fruit extract was active against all the test isolates followed by Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis.

Author(s): 
Bag, Anwesa
Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar
Pal, Nishith Kumar
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

AIMS: Multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a rapidly increasing problem in the world, particularly Thailand. Practical antimalarial regimens which are highly effective against multi-drug resistant parasites with short-term course of administration are needed. In this study, we assessed the patient compliance of a short course regimen using artemether-mefloquine.

Author(s): 
Na-Bangchang, K.
Congpuong, K.
Sirichaisinthop, J.
Suprakorb, K.
Karbwang, J.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

An open, randomized comparison of artemether-benflumetol (CGP 56 697; Novartis) with artesunate-mefloquine was conducted in 617 patients with acute uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria on the western border of Thailand. Both treatments rapidly and reliably cleared fever and parasitemia, and there was no significant difference in the initial therapeutic response parameters. Parasite genotyping was used to distinguish recrudescences from new infections.

Author(s): 
van Vugt, M.
Brockman, A.
Gemperli, B.
Luxemburger, C.
Gathmann, I.
Royce, C.
Slight, T.
Looareesuwan, S.
White, N. J.
Nosten, F.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

A randomized pilot study to compare the safety and efficacy of artesunate suppositories (15 mg/kg/day for three days) versus oral artesunate (6 mg/kg/day for three days), both in combination with mefloquine (25 mg/kg), was conducted in 52 Thai children with uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. Forty-five patients (87%) had a full 28-day follow-up in the hospital to assess efficacy and exclude reinfection. Mean [range] times to fever clearance of the two groups were similar (42 hr [15-104] versus 42 hr [6-119]).

Author(s): 
Sabchareon, A.
Attanath, P.
Chanthavanich, P.
Phanuaksook, P.
Prarinyanupharb, V.
Poonpanich, Y.
Mookmanee, D.
Teja-Isavadharm, P.
Heppner, D. G.
Brewer, T. G.
Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace.

Author(s): 
Gomes, M.
Wayling, S.
Pang, L.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of artesunate (2mg/kg/day for five days, then 1 mg/kg/day for two days: total=12 mg/kg) was compared with that of artemether (4 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg/day for two days, then 1 mg/kg/day for four days: total=12 mg/kg) for the treatment of recrudescent multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria in an open randomized trial in 443 patients living on the western border of Thailand.

Author(s): 
Price, R.
van Vugt, M.
Nosten, F.
Luxemburger, C.
Brockman, A.
Phaipun, L.
Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.
White, N.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The new oral fixed combination artemether-lumefantrine (CGP 56697) has proved to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment of multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, although cure rates using the four-dose regimen have been lower than with the currently recommended alternative of artesunate-mefloquine.

Author(s): 
Vugt, M. V.
Wilairatana, P.
Gemperli, B.
Gathmann, I.
Phaipun, L.
Brockman, A.
Luxemburger, C.
White, N. J.
Nosten, F.
Looareesuwan, S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Using a continuous in vitro culture system, the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artemether and a new antimalarial drug, benflumetol (lumefantrine), alone and in combination, was investigated with a multiresistant strain (T-996) from Thailand and a chloroquine-resistant strain (LS-21) from India.

Author(s): 
Hassan Alin, M.
Bjorkman, A.
Wernsdorfer, W. H.

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