Drug Resistance, Viral

Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

This is the first report of treatment of cytomegalovirus infection with artesunate, for a stem cell transplant recipient with a newly identified foscarnet-resistant and ganciclovir-resistant DNA polymerase L776M mutation. Artesunate treatment resulted in a 1.7-2.1-log reduction in viral load by treatment day 7, with a viral half-life of 0.9-1.9 days, indicating a highly effective block in viral replication.

Author(s): 
Shapira, Michael Y.
Resnick, Igor B.
Chou, Sunwen
Neumann, Avidan U.
Lurain, Nell S.
Stamminger, Thomas
Caplan, Orit
Saleh, Niveen
Efferth, Thomas
Marschall, Manfred
Wolf, Dana G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance poses a significant challenge for the successful application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) globally. Furthermore, emergence of HIV-1 isolates that preferentially use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for cell entry, either as a consequence of natural viral evolution or HAART use, may compromise the efficacy of CCR5 antagonists as alternative antiviral therapy. METHODS: We sequenced the pol gene of viruses from 45 individuals failing at least 6 months of HAART in Durban, South Africa, to determine the prevalence and patterns of drug-resistance mutations.

Author(s): 
Singh, Ashika
Sunpath, Henry
Green, Taryn N.
Padayachi, Nagavelli
Hiramen, Keshni
Lie, Yolanda
Anton, Elizabeth D.
Murphy, Richard
Reeves, Jacqueline D.
Kuritzkes, Daniel R.
Ndung'u, Thumbi
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

HIV-1 drug resistance monitoring in resource-poor settings is crucial due to limited drug alternatives. Recent reports of the increased prevalence of CXCR4 usage in subtype C infections may have implications for CCR5 antagonists in therapy. We investigated the prevalence of drug resistance mutations and CXCR4 coreceptor utilization of viruses from HIV-1 subtype C-infected children. Fifty-one children with virological failure during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 43 HAART-naive children were recruited.

Author(s): 
Green, Taryn N.
Archary, Mohendran
Gordon, Michelle L.
Padayachi, Nagavelli
Lie, Yolanda
Anton, Elizabeth D.
Reeves, Jacqueline D.
Grobler, Anneke
Bobat, Raziya
Coovadia, Hoosen
Ndung'u, Thumbi
Publication Title: 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)

Intravenous silibinin (SIL) is an approved therapeutic that has recently been applied to patients with chronic hepatitis C, successfully clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in some patients even in monotherapy. Previous studies suggested multiple antiviral mechanisms of SIL; however, the dominant mode of action has not been determined. We first analyzed the impact of SIL on replication of subgenomic replicons from different HCV genotypes in vitro and found a strong inhibition of RNA replication for genotype 1a and genotype 1b.

Author(s): 
Esser-Nobis, Katharina
Romero-Brey, Inés
Ganten, Tom M.
Gouttenoire, Jérôme
Harak, Christian
Klein, Rahel
Schemmer, Peter
Binder, Marco
Schnitzler, Paul
Moradpour, Darius
Bartenschlager, Ralf
Polyak, Stephen J.
Stremmel, Wolfgang
Penin, François
Eisenbach, Christoph
Lohmann, Volker
Publication Title: 
PLoS computational biology

The H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 has claimed over 18,000 lives. During this pandemic, development of drug resistance further complicated efforts to control and treat the widespread illness. This research utilizes traditional Chinese medicine [email protected] (TCM [email protected]) to screen for compounds that simultaneously target H1 and N1 to overcome current difficulties with virus mutations. The top three candidates were de novo derivatives of xylopine and rosmaricine.

Author(s): 
Chang, Su-Sen
Huang, Hung-Jin
Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian
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