BACKGROUND: Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been shown to be safe and to have beneficial effects on cognition, function, behavior, and global patient status in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in studies lasting 3-6 months. It is approved in the U.S. and Europe for the treatment of moderate to severe AD and is currently under investigation for mild to moderate AD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety of memantine in patients with mild to moderate AD and to investigate the tolerability of once-daily dose administration.
Vasculature is essential for the sustained growth of solid tumors and metastases. Tumor cells surviving vascular-disruptive therapeutic intervention (especially those present at the tumor rim) can contribute to tumor regrowth. The aim was to strengthen, by carrier-mediated delivery of a chemotherapeutic, the curative effects of a bifunctional anti-vascular oligopeptide capable of inducing vascular shutdown and tumor shrinkage. For the in vitro experiments and animal therapy, ACDCRGDCFC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)(2) peptide (900 microM in D-PBSA, i.e.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a lethal, neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the Huntingtin gene (HTT), leading to mutant protein misfolding, aggregation, and neuronal death. Feeding a Drosophila HD model cystamine, or expressing a transgene encoding the anti-htt intracellular antibody (intrabody) C4-scFv in the nervous system, demonstrated therapeutic potential, but suppression of pathology was incomplete.
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
OBJECTIVE: With the increasing longevity of heart transplant recipients, the long-term effects of cyclosporine on renal function have become more evident. Highly sensitive, early, and effective monitoring of posttransplant renal function is still being researched. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of cystatin C for patients after heart transplantation. METHODS: Seventy-three long-term recipients of a heart transplant more than 5 years before the study start were included in the analysis with a follow-up of 4 years.
Depression is a medical condition with a complex biological pattern of aetiology, involving genetic and epigenetic factors, along with different environmental stressors. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress processes might play a relevant role in the pathogenic mechanism(s) underlying many major psychiatric disorders, including depression. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been shown to modulate levels and activity of noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, dopamine and glutamate, the principal neurotransmitters involved in the neurobiology of depression.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Notwithstanding the considerable advances in the treatment options for schizophrenia, the cognitive symptoms in particular are not receptive to antipsychotic treatment and considered one of the main predictors for poor social and functional outcome of the disease. Recent findings in preclinical model systems indicate that epigenetic modulation might emerge as a promising target for the treatment of cognitive disorders.
The treatment of bipolar disorder is a current challenge for clinicians and despite progress in psychopharmacology, options remain limited and results are often unsatisfactory. Current research focuses on finding new pharmaceutical agents for all phases of bipolar disorder, i.e. mania, bipolar depression and maintenance. Particularly, relapse prevention and longterm stabilization is a major therapeutic target. Combination treatment and polypharmacy are the most common choices concerning relapse prevention.
OBJECTIVE: The growing prevalence of multiple medicine use among elderly challenges health care. The aim was to conduct an exploratory study describing multiple medicine use from the elderly patient's perspective. METHODS: Twelve focus groups of 29 men and 30 women 65 years of age or older, using five or more medicines were analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: Initially the participants reported no problems with using multiple medicines; they felt fortunate that medicines existed and kept them alive.
There is substantial variation in the generosity of public assistance programs that affect HIV+ patients, and these differences should affect the economic outcomes associated with HIV infection. This article uses data from a nationally representative sample of HIV+ patients to assess how differences across states in Medicaid and AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) affect costs and labor market outcomes for HIV+ patients in care in that state.
BACKGROUND: Introduction of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) has revolutionized treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, due to substantially higher costs of biologics compared with nonbiologics, patients with less insurance generosity may have difficulty affording these agents, which may lead to potential access disparities. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors affecting treatment initiation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitor biologics in patients with RA.