Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tolerance represents a dynamic mechanism that can be used to temper various regulatory processes regardless of whether they mediate excitation or inhibition. Tolerance operationally directs state-dependent attenuation of the action of endogenous and exogenous morphine. For example, tolerance ensures that immuno-inhibition induced by morphine does not compromise a requisite functional system over an extended period of time. In the nervous system, tolerance to inhibitory action insures that excitatory tone is resumed.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Pretreatment of rats with tricyclic antidepressants, imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline and nortriptyline, at two doses (5 and 25 mg/kg) 20 minutes before administration of barbiturate markedly reduced the latent period of the response to barbital and prolonged the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (PB) and barbital. The effects were dose-dependent. The prolonged sleeping time produced by PB was associated with decreases in the rates of disappearance of PB from the brain and plasma.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Cadmium administration potentiates the duration of hexobarbital-induced hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal metabolism of this drug in the male rat. The threshold dose of cadmium required to produce these alterations in drug action is 0.84 mg Ck/kg. If subthreshold doses of cadmium (0.21 or 0.42 mg Cd/kg) are administered prior to the 0.84 mg Cd/kg dose, the cadmium-induced alterations in drug action are no longer observed.
The action of copper (CuSO4, 5 mg/kg, oral) on selected neuropharmacological actions of cannabis resin (CI, oral) was studied on albino rats and mice. Copper potentiated the barbiturate hypnosis-potentiating activity of CI in albino rats and mice and had no effect on hypothermic activity in albino rats. Single doses of copper partially inhibited tolerance to barbiturate hypnosis-potentiation activity and markedly delayed the development of tolerance to hypothermic activity of CI. Oral as well as i.c.v.
The effect of acute and chronic cadmium administration on hepatic drug metabolism was investigated in the male rat. 3 days after the acute administration of cadmium by either the intraperitoneal (0.84 mg Cd/kg) or the oral (greater than 80 mg Cd/kg) route, there was a significant potentiation in duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibition of hepatic microsomal metabolism of hexobarbital and aniline.
Induction of hepatic propoxyphene N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase activities resulted following repeated oral administration of 25, 50 and 100 mg d-propoxyphene hydrochloride per kg daily in the mouse over a six-day period. A significant elevation in both enzyme activities was noted after a single dose of propoxyphene (100 mg/kg). A dose-related response characterized the observed induction of each microsomal enzyme activity.
Controlling the duration of hypnotic effect of pentobarbital by simultaneously administered bemegride, the relationship between the duration of hypnosis and the degree of developed tolerance after acute or chronic treatment was investigated in mice. Bemegride attenuated the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital, but neither the brain level of pentobarbital nor the development of tolerance was modified by bemegride, indicating that the brain level of pentobarbital is the primary determinant for the production of tolerance and full duration of hypnosis is not essential in this mechanism.
Chronic intracerebroventricular injection of phenobarbital results in the development of tolerance to the depressant effects of the drug. The neurotransmitters involved and the manner in which cerebral neurons adapt to this depressant effect are at present unknown. This study examines whether brain serotonin containing neurons participate in the attenuation of the hypnotic response caused by chronic barbiturate administration.
The effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on the responses produced by acute and chronic administration of pentobarbital (PB) were investigated in male Swiss Webster mice. Intraperitoneal injection of TRH antagonized the hypothermic and hypnotic effect of PB (75 mg/kg, i.p.). Pentobarbital hypnosis was also antagonized by TRH in mice rendered tolerant to PB by implantation of a pellet (each containing 75 mg of free acid form of the drug) for two days.