Duodenum

Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands.

Author(s): 
Nadar, T. S.
Pillai, M. M.
Publication Title: 
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND: Gut-directed hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but little is known about the mechanisms of action. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects on gastrointestinal motility when treating IBS with gut-directed hypnotherapy. METHODS: We randomized 90 patients with IBS, refractory to standard management to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy 1 h/week for 12 weeks or supportive treatment for the same time period.

Author(s): 
Lindfors, Perjohan
Törnblom, Hans
Sadik, Riadh
Björnsson, Einar S.
Abrahamsson, Hasse
Simrén, Magnus
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands.

Author(s): 
Nadar, T. S.
Pillai, M. M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The purpose of this study was to determine whether bioflavonoid glucoside O-conjugates are absorbed from the intestine in the intact form or as their aglycones following hydrolysis by intestinal beta-glucosidases. In this study, the intestinal absorption of genistin, the beta-glucoside of the isoflavone genistein, was examined in anesthetized, adult female rats fitted with indwelling biliary cannulas. To first establish whether genistein, once absorbed, was converted into unique metabolites, genistin was infused into the femoral or portal veins and bile samples quantitatively collected.

Author(s): 
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Xu, Jun
Kirk, Marion
Smith Johnson, Michelle
Sfakianos, Jeff
Barnes, Stephen
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Obesity (2005)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the satiety-promoting effects of a novel protease inhibitor concentrate derived from potato (PPIC). METHODS: The acute and prolonged effects of oral PPIC administration (100 mg kg(-1) per day) on food intake, body weight and gastric emptying were evaluated in healthy rats. Parameters of body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were measured. Duodenal proteolytic activity and CCK expression were determined in tissue extracts.

Author(s): 
Komarnytsky, S.
Cook, A.
Raskin, I.
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

Midgut volvulus due to malrotation may result in loss of the small bowel. Until now, after derotation of the volvulus, pediatric surgeons do not deal with the mesenteric thrombosis, which causes continuing ischemia of the intestine. On occasion, a "second look" laparotomy is performed in the hope that some improvement in blood supply to the intestine has occurred. We describe a new combined treatment to restore intestinal perfusion based on digital massage of the superior mesenteric vessels after derotation and systemic infusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator.

Author(s): 
Kiely, Edward M.
Pierro, Agostino
Pierce, Christine
Cross, Kate
De Coppi, Paolo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Société Canadienne Des Sciences Pharmaceutiques

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to evaluate the possible antispasmodic activity in vitro of methanolic extracts (ME) of six Brazilian medicinal plants. METHODS: The extracts were evaluated on isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat duodenum preparations. RESULTS: Rubus imperialis, Maytenus robusta, Ipomoea pes caprae and Epidendrum mosenii did not inhibit the contractile response elicited by acetylcholine on guinea-pig ileum.

Author(s): 
Emendörfer, Fernanda
Emendörfer, Fabiane
Bellato, Fernanda
Noldin, Vânia F.
Niero, Rivaldo
Cechinel-Filho, Valdir
Cardozo, Alcibia Maia
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely performed to induce weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine changes in vitamin status after 2 bariatric surgical techniques. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 Scandinavian hospitals. The subjects were 60 superobese patients [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 50-60]. The surgical interventions were either laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. All patients received multivitamins, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements.

Author(s): 
Aasheim, Erlend T.
Björkman, Sofia
Søvik, Torgeir T.
Engström, My
Hanvold, Susanna E.
Mala, Tom
Olbers, Torsten
Bøhmer, Thomas
Publication Title: 
Journal of Animal Science

Ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and flows to the duodenum in growing cattle fed differently produced canola protein supplements were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin square design using Speckle Park heifers (initial BW = 451 +/- 26 kg). Canola protein supplement treatments consisted of the following: 1) 8.78% regular canola meal (RCM); 2) 9.25% RCM plus 1.80% canola oil (RCMO); 3) 11.1% canola presscake from biodiesel oil extraction (CPC); and 4) 8.14% high ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) canola meal (RUCM) plus 1.32% canola oil (RUCMO).

Author(s): 
Gozho, G. N.
McKinnon, J. J.
Christensen, D. A.
Racz, V.
Mutsvangwa, T.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Surgery

OBJECTIVE: The authors determined whether caloric restriction (CR) either acutely or chronically, alters heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene expression in the gut. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Caloric restriction prolongs the life span and delays age-related disease (e.g., cancer) in mammals; the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. Heat shock proteins are a group of stress-responsive genes of which the most prominent member is hsp70. METHODS: In the first experiment, adult (4-month-old) rats (n = 3/group) were killed after a 48-hour fast or 6 and 24 hours after refeeding.

Author(s): 
Ehrenfried, J. A.
Evers, B. M.
Chu, K. U.
Townsend, C. M.
Thompson, J. C.

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