Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) has been used for many centuries in traditional Indian Ayurvedic formulations for the prevention and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of amla fruit extract. The amla fruit extract potentially and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations (1-100 μg/ml).
BACKGROUND: Although diabetes confers an increased propensity toward accelerated atherogenesis, data are lacking on monocyte activity in type 2 diabetic patients with (DM2-MV) and without (DM2) macrovascular disease compared with control subjects.
The premise that oxidative stress, among several other factors, plays an important role in atherogenesis implies that the development and progression of atherosclerosis can be inhibited by antioxidants. In this minireview we discuss several mechanisms by which the antioxidants ascorbate (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) may protect against atherosclerosis. These mechanisms include inhibition of LDL oxidation and inhibition of leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and vascular endothelial dysfunction.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is a key early event in atherogenesis. C-reactive protein (CRP), a cardiovascular risk marker, is known to stimulate ICAM and VCAM in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and induces monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which native CRP promotes monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion under static conditions and tested the effect of CRP on adhesion under shear flow.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Recent studies show that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has potent anti-inflammatory effects in multiple animal models of disease in various organ systems, including the kidney, suggesting that HGF may suppress a common proinflammatory process. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanism of HGF's anti-inflammatory actions in a model of chronic kidney disease.
Glycosylation of proteins plays multiple roles in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Fucose is a monosaccharide associated with glycosylation events and is known to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors. By using alpha-L-fucosidase (alpha-L-fase), a glycosidase that specifically removes alpha-L-fucose (alpha-L-f), we have examined the potential effects of defucosylation on tumor functions, focusing on tumor progression in the context of the interaction of tumor cells with the extracellular microenvironment.
E-selectin is a type-1 membrane protein on microvascular endothelial cells that helps initiate recruitment of circulating leukocytes to cutaneous, bone and inflamed tissues. E-selectin expression is constitutive on dermal and bone microvessels and is inducible by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1alpha/ and TNF-alpha, on microvessels in inflamed tissues. This lectin receptor mediates weak binding interactions with carbohydrate counter-receptor ligands on circulating leukocytes, which results in a characteristic rolling behavior.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
How cancer cells bind to vascular surfaces and extravasate into target organs is an underappreciated, yet essential step in metastasis. We postulate that the metastatic process involves discrete adhesive interactions between circulating cancer cells and microvascular endothelial cells. Sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)) on prostate cancer (PCa) cells is thought to promote metastasis by mediating PCa cell binding to microvascular endothelial (E)-selectin. Yet, regulation of sLe(X) and related E-selectin ligand expression in PCa cells is a poorly understood factor in PCa metastasis.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abscisic acid (ABA) has shown effectiveness in ameliorating inflammation in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease models. The objective of this study was to determine whether ABA prevents or ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed diets with or without ABA (100mg/kg) for 35 days prior to challenge with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The severity of clinical disease was assessed daily.
In vitro and limited in vivo evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidases (NOX-ROS) play an important role in inflammatory responses by enhancing the activity of redox-sensitive cell signaling pathways and transcription factors. Here, we investigated the role of NOX-ROS in TNFα-induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo, using mice deficient in the gp91(phox) (NOX2) or p47(phox) subunits of NADPH oxidase.