Early Diagnosis

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

OBJECTIVE: With the increasing longevity of heart transplant recipients, the long-term effects of cyclosporine on renal function have become more evident. Highly sensitive, early, and effective monitoring of posttransplant renal function is still being researched. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of cystatin C for patients after heart transplantation. METHODS: Seventy-three long-term recipients of a heart transplant more than 5 years before the study start were included in the analysis with a follow-up of 4 years.

Author(s): 
Kniepeiss, Daniela
Wagner, Doris
Wirnsberger, Gerhard
Roller, Regina E.
Wasler, Andr‰
Iberer, Florian
Tscheliessnigg, Karl-Heinz
Publication Title: 
Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine

BACKGROUND: Brain morphometric abnormalities in schizophrenia have been extensively reported in the literature. Whole-brain volumetric reductions are almost universally reported by most studies irrespective of the characteristics of the samples studied (e.g., chronic/recent-onset; medicated/neuroleptic-naÔve etc.). However, the same cannot be said of the reported regional morphometric abnormalities in schizophrenia. While certain regional morphometric abnormalities are more frequently reported than others, there are no such abnormalities that are universally reported across studies.

Author(s): 
John, John P.
Lukose, Ammu
Bagepally, Bhavani Shankara
Halahalli, Harsha N.
Moily, Nagaraj S.
Vijayakumari, Anupa A.
Jain, Sanjeev
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy (MAS) have reduced the transmission of falciparum malaria dramatically and halted the progression of mefloquine resistance in camps for displaced persons along the Thai-Burmese border, an area of low and seasonal transmission of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We extended the same combination drug strategy to all other communities (estimated population 450,000) living in five border districts of Tak province in northwestern Thailand.

Author(s): 
Carrara, Verena Ilona
Sirilak, Supakit
Thonglairuam, Janjira
Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn
Proux, Stephane
Gilbos, Valery
Brockman, Al
Ashley, Elizabeth A.
McGready, Rose
Krudsood, Srivicha
Leemingsawat, Somjai
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Singhasivanon, Pratap
White, Nicholas
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and treatment (EDAT) is crucial to reducing the burden of malaria in low-income countries. In the Lao PDR, this strategy was introduced in 2004-2005 and an assessment was performed at the community level in January 2007. METHODS: EDAT with malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was prospectively assessed among 36 randomized village health volunteers (VHVs) and 720 patients in six malaria-endemic provinces of Laos (three pilot provinces (PP), and three non-pilots provinces (NPP)).

Author(s): 
Phommanivong, Viengvaly
Thongkham, Khanti
Deyer, Gopinath
Rene, Jean P.
Barennes, Hubert
Publication Title: 
Parasites & Vectors

BACKGROUND: Research is now focused on identification of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for early identification of schistosomal infection and evaluation of chemotherapy in field situations in China. RESULTS: This study compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with conventional PCR as DNA-based diagnostic techniques for the early detection of schistosomal DNA and the evaluation of chemotherapy.

Author(s): 
Wang, Cen
Chen, Lin
Yin, Xuren
Hua, Wanquan
Hou, Min
Ji, Minjun
Yu, Chuanxin
Wu, Guanling
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Although early diagnosis and prompt treatment is an important strategy for control of malaria, using fever to initiate presumptive treatment with expensive artemisinin combination therapy is a major challenge; particularly in areas with declining burden of malaria. This study was conducted using community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to provide early diagnosis and treatment of malaria, and collect data for estimation of malaria burden in four villages of Korogwe district, north-eastern Tanzania.

Author(s): 
Rutta, Acleus S. M.
Francis, Filbert
Mmbando, Bruno P.
Ishengoma, Deus S.
Sembuche, Samwel H.
Malecela, Ezekiel K.
Sadi, Johari Y.
Kamugisha, Mathias L.
Lemnge, Martha M.
Publication Title: 
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of rapid diagnostic tests on the diagnostic accuracy and treatment of malaria and non-severe fever in an Asian setting. DESIGN: Patient randomised trial in primary level clinics. SETTING: Two areas of Afghanistan where Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are endemic; one area with moderate transmission (eastern region) and one with low transmission (northern region). PARTICIPANTS: 5794 patients of all ages with suspected malaria enrolled by 80 clinicians in 22 clinics.

Author(s): 
Leslie, Toby
Mikhail, Amy
Mayan, Ismail
Cundill, Bonnie
Anwar, Mohammed
Bakhtash, Sayed Habib
Mohammed, Nader
Rahman, Habib
Zekria, Rohullah
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Rowland, Mark
Publication Title: 
The American Journal on Addictions / American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions

This study examined the prevalence, patient characteristics, and treatment initiation and engagement of adolescents with co-occurring substance use (SU) and serious mental health (MH) diagnoses in a private, managed care health plan. We identified 2,005 adolescents aged 12-17, who received both SU and MH diagnoses within a 1-year window between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2002; 57% were girls. Gender variations were found in diagnoses received and point of identification.

Author(s): 
Chi, Felicia W.
Sterling, Stacy
Weisner, Constance
Publication Title: 
Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists

OBJECTIVE: The aims are to briefly review treatment outcomes for impaired practitioners, and to explore how preventive and early intervention, and the accessing of and retention within treatment systems for impaired medical practitioners, and particularly psychiatrists, could be improved to maximize the doctors' chances of full recovery and to minimize danger to self and others. METHODS: The literature on the treatment and care of medical practitioner impairment due to mental illness, and substance use, with special reference to impaired psychiatrists is briefly reviewed.

Author(s): 
Rosen, Alan
Wilson, Andrew
Randal, Patte
Pethebridge, Andrew
Codyre, David
Barton, David
Norrie, Peter
McGeorge, Peter
Rose, Lynette
Publication Title: 
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive methods are needed to detect distal sensory polyneuropathy in HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), small-fiber sensitive measures, were assessed in subjects with and without clinical neuropathy. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: Twenty-two subjects had symptoms and signs of neuropathy, 19 had neither, and all were receiving ART.

Author(s): 
Boger, M. S.
Hulgan, T.
Haas, D. W.
Mitchell, V.
Smith, A. G.
Singleton, J. R.
Peltier, A. C.

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