Dampening of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling results in the extension of lifespan in invertebrate as well as murine models. The impact of this evolutionarily conserved pathway on the modulation of human lifespan remains unclear. We previously identified two IGF1R mutations (Ala-37-Thr and Arg-407-His) that are enriched in Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians as compared to younger controls and are associated with the reduced activity of the IGF1 receptor as measured in immortalized lymphocytes.
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress can have lifelong implications for psychological function, such as behavioral problems and even the development of mental illness. Previous research suggests that this is due to transgenerational epigenetic programming of genes operating in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, it is not known whether intrauterine exposure to maternal stress affects the epigenetic state of these genes beyond infancy.
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein, was recently established as a proinflammatory mediator of experimental sepsis. Although extracellular HMGB1 has been found in atherosclerotic plaques, its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether HMGB1 induces tissue factor (TF) expression in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages. Our data showed that HMGB1 stimulated ECs to express TF (but not TF pathway inhibitor) mRNA and protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.
In the field of herpesvirus research, the exact molecular mechanism by which such viruses reactivate from latency remains elusive. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) primarily exists in a latent state, while only 1-3% of cells support lytic infection at any specific time. KSHV reactivation from latency is an exceedingly intricate process mediated by the integration of viral and cellular factors.
The aging program mediated by IGF1-R is responsible for a naturally occurring TrkA to p75(NTR) switch that leads to activation of the second messenger ceramide and increased production of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta-peptide. Biochemical and genetic approaches that target IGF1-R signaling, p75(NTR), or ceramide are able to block the above events. Here, we show that the transcription factors Egr-1 and Hipk2 are required elements for the TrkA to p75(NTR) switch downstream of IGF1-R signaling.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a therapeutic target of anti-angiogenesis. Here, we report that a novel sulfated glycopeptide derived from Gekko swinhonis Guenther (GSPP), an anticancer drug in traditional Chinese medicine, inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting bFGF. GSPP significantly decreased the production of bFGF in hepatoma cells by suppressing early growth response-1. GSPP inhibited the release of bFGF from extracellular matrix by blocking heparanase enzymatic activity.