A commentary is offered on the chapters that comprise the section on Theoretical Foundations, emphasizing novel contributions of each. Three additional points are then made. First, while the biology of reproductive aging may be common to all human populations, its actual course can be expected to vary between individuals and between populations depending on ecological conditions and developmental histories.
Dental topographic analysis is the quantitative assessment of shape of three-dimensional models of tooth crowns and component features. Molar topographic curvature, relief, and complexity correlate with aspects of feeding behavior in certain living primates, and have been employed to investigate dietary ecology in extant and extinct primate species. This study investigates whether dental topography correlates with diet among a diverse sample of living platyrrhines, and compares platyrrhine topography with that of prosimians.
The issue of regulating animal care in modern animal production systems and in the research laboratory is discussed from the perspective of an animal scientist with a farm background and 25 years of agricultural experiment station experience. Evidence is presented for a long-term association of humans with (and dependence on) animals, which extends into prehistory far beyond the beginnings of animal domestication some 11,000 years ago.
Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change to commercial fishing, reveals that the lay public is more concerned about low-probability, high-consequence risks whereas the risk professionals are more concerned about risks that pose long-term, ecosystem-level impacts.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life?
In classical Ayurvedic medicine, the jungle is the dry land of the Punjab and the Delhi Doab, an open vegetation of thorny shrubs. The polarity of dry lands and wet lands framed not only the whole Ayurvedic materia medica, but also the more general conception of a cosmic physiology governed by Agni (the sun) and Soma (the dispenser of the rain). Clearing the land and draining the body were two aspects of one and the same art of managing the transactions of all sorts of vital fluids, saps, juices, savors and humors.
In ecological farming mastitis is the dominating disease in dairy cattle. The regular prophylactic use of antibiotics in farm animals is forbidden, in therapy antibiosis is restricted. A solution of this problem could be a program of systematic homeopathic prophylaxis as well as a standardised homeopathic treatment. The example of chronic catarrhal staph.-aureus-mastitis shows that there is only a certain expectancy of success by homeopathy as well as by any other medication, if the medication is combined with necessary sanitation measures.
In 1979, Maebashi City discontinued influenza mass vaccination immediately after a case of vaccine-related convulsion occurred. A research group of the Maebashi City Medical Association studied the effects of mass vaccination on influenza activity in two cities without mass vaccination programs and three cities with mass vaccination programs (Maebashi Study).
Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao = The Journal of Applied Ecology / Zhongguo Sheng Tai Xue Xue Hui, Zhongguo Ke Xue Yuan Shenyang Ying Yong Sheng Tai Yan Jiu Suo Zhu Ban
This paper presents a review of the mechanisms and advantages of the constructed wetland (CW). The wetland as land-intensive biological treatment systems has complicated purificative mechanisms, including physio-chemistry such as substrate adsorption, substrate filtration, plant adsorption, pollutant sediment ion exchange and biochemistry such as plant sorption, microbiology oxidation, microbiology ammunition.