Educational Status

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Public Health

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin and mineral supplementation is a common practice in the United States, yet little is known about the long-term health effects of regular supplement use. METHODS: To examine the relationship between reported use of supplements and mortality, we analyzed data from US adults 25 to 74 years of age who were examined in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971 to 1975), with vital status determined through 1987. RESULTS: At baseline, 22.5% of the cohort reported using supplements regularly and 10.0% reported irregular use.

Author(s): 
Kim, I.
Williamson, D. F.
Byers, T.
Koplan, J. P.
Publication Title: 
Human Biology

The purpose of this study was to review published studies on the variability of age at menarche and age at menopause throughout the world, and to identify the main causes for age variation in the timing of these events. We first present a summary table including mean (or median) values of the age at menarche in 67 countries, and of the age at menopause in 26 countries.

Author(s): 
Thomas, F.
Renaud, F.
Benefice, E.
de Mee¸s, T.
Guegan, J. F.
Publication Title: 
The Gerontologist

PURPOSE: Prevalence estimates of healthy behaviors and preventive care among older adults have not received sufficient attention, despite important health benefits such as longevity and better quality of life. Moreover, little is known about general population prevalences of older adults' efforts to change behavior, motivations to improve health behaviors, and perceived barriers to change.

Author(s): 
Newsom, Jason T.
Kaplan, Mark S.
Huguet, Nathalie
McFarland, Bentson H.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates.

Author(s): 
Bamia, Christina
Orfanos, Philippos
Ferrari, Pietro
Overvad, Kim
Hundborg, Heidi H.
Tj¯nneland, Anne
Olsen, Anja
Kesse, Emmanuelle
Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
Clavel-Chapelon, FranÁoise
Nagel, Gabriele
Boffetta, Paolo
Boeing, Heiner
Hoffmann, Kurt
Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
Baibas, Nikos
Psaltopoulou, Theodora
Norat, Teresa
Slimani, Nadia
Palli, Domenico
Krogh, Vittorio
Panico, Salvatore
Tumino, Rosario
Sacerdote, Carlotta
Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
Ocké, Marga C.
Peeters, Petra H.
van Rossum, Caroline T.
QuirÛs, JosÈ-RamÛn
S·nchez, MarÌa-JosÈ
Navarro, Carmen
Barricarte, Aurelio
Dorronsoro, Miren
Berglund, Gˆran
Wirf‰lt, Elisabet
Hallmans, Gˆran
Johansson, Ingegerd
Bingham, Sheila
Khaw, Kay-Tee
Spencer, Elizabeth A.
Roddam, Andrew W.
Riboli, Elio
Trichopoulou, Antonia
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: The need to gain insight into prevailing eating patterns and their health effects is evident. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and their relation to total mortality in older Dutch women. DESIGN: A principal component analysis of 22 food groups was used to identify dietary patterns in 5427 women aged 60-69 y who were included in the Dutch European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Elderly cohort (follow-up: approximately 8.2 y). Mortality ratios for 3 major principal components were assessed by using Cox proportional hazard analysis.

Author(s): 
Waijers, Patricia M. C. M.
Ocké, Marga C.
van Rossum, Caroline T. M.
Peeters, Petra H. M.
Bamia, Christina
Chloptsios, Yiannis
van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
Slimani, Nadia
Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Nutrition

Dietary patterns, which reflect the complexity of food preference, lifestyle and socio-economic status, may play a major role in health and longevity. Understanding dietary patterns and their correlates is important to the research of diet and health relationships. In the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) a total of 61,582 men aged 40-74 were recruited between 2002 and 2006. Their food intake over the previous year was collected using a validated FFQ. Study participants (75.6%) reported little or no change in meat and vegetable intake in the 5 years prior to recruitment.

Author(s): 
Cai, Hui
Zheng, Wei
Xiang, Yong-Bing
Xu, Wang Hong
Yang, Gong
Li, Honglan
Shu, Xiao Ou
Publication Title: 
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

BACKGROUND: Despite different levels of economic development, Costa Rica and the USA have similar mortalities among adults. However, in the USA there are substantial differences in mortality by educational attainment, and in Costa Rica there are only minor differences. This contrast motivates an examination of behavioural and biological correlates underlying this difference.

Author(s): 
Rehkopf, David H.
Dow, William H.
Rosero-Bixby, Luis
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Reproductive Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To examine the rate of spontaneous twinning in selected countries in order to evaluate the impact of environmental stress and related socioeconomic factors on balancing reproductive activity and longevity. STUDY DESIGN: Four countries with similar ancestry were considered, 2 in Africa and 2 in the Caribbean. Data on gross domestic product per capita, as a measure of indigenous conditions, access to proper diet, health care, sanitation and shelter were compared with the relative rate of twinning.

Author(s): 
Steinman, Gary
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

BACKGROUND: Despite many studies on cognitive function and its influential factors among old population, relatively little research has been designed to study the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive function in elderly. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a population-based, prospective nested case-control study to investigate the association between dietary habits and declines in cognitive function over three years among Chinese illiterate elderly. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was part of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Study (CLHLS).

Author(s): 
Chen, X.
Huang, Y.
Cheng, H. G.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Theory suggests that chronic stress associated with disadvantaged social status may lead to acceleration in the rate of decline in physiological functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cell aging, in children. We examined SES and LTL in 70 white and black US children aged 7-13 who participated in the community-based AMERICO (Admixture Mapping for Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes) study. LTL was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

Author(s): 
Needham, Belinda L.
Fernandez, Jose R.
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

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