Secular growth has been occurring in Europe for about 150 years. In the USA, since 1900, each new generation has increased by an average of 1in (2.54cm) in height and about 10lb (4.54kg) in weight. This trend has generally been viewed as favorable and tallness is admired, with the current ideal height for a man in the Western world being 6ft 2in (188cm). The Japanese have increased in height since the end of the Second World War by about 5in (12.7cm) in height and the Chinese have been growing at the rate of 2.54cm/decade since the 1950s.
The aging process is evolutionarily conserved and subject to quantitative modification by both genetic and environmental factors. Fundamental mechanisms of aging result in progressive deficits in the function of cells and organs, often leading to diseases that ultimately kill the organism such as cancers, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress and damage to all of the major classes of molecules in cells are involved in aging and age-related diseases.
In Finland, municipal health care expenditure varies from FIM 3 800 per capita to FIM 7 800 per capita. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of different economic, structural and demographic factors on the per capita costs of health services and care of the elderly. Using regression analysis we attempted to explain observed differences in expenditure by determining separately the effects of allocative and productive inefficiency and the effects of factors influencing the demand for services.
Since the advent of pay for performance in medicine, there has been an intense debate about its efficacy and enforceability. This article examines some philosophical and psychological aspects of pay for performance. The very concept of pay for performance is inimical to the Hippocratic oath; it operates in direct conflict with powerful ideals such as altruism and concern for community. These ideals traditionally serve as powerful motivators for physicians. Physicians have just begun to incorporate and enhance the autonomy model.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
I argue for differences in the cognitive efficiency of different psychologies underlying helping behavior, and present an account of the adaptive pressures that result from these differences. Specifically, I argue that organisms often face pressure to move away from only being egoistically motivated to help: non-egoistic organisms are often able to determine how to help other organisms more quickly and with less recourse to costly cognitive resources like concentration and attention.
Whether caloric restriction can alter the efficiency of muscular work raises important questions regarding the control of energetic coupling processes and the efficacy of exercise as a treatment for obesity. To address these issues, oxygen uptake (VO2) was determined at rest and during incremental cycle ergometry in 13 moderately obese (133 +/- 3% ideal body weight, means +/- SEM) women during weight maintenance and after 3 wk of caloric restriction (800 kcal/d). Work efficiency was calculated from the linear portion of the VO2-work rate relationship.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
The present study is an examination of the characteristics of female chiropractors in Canada. Of particular interest were their practice patterns, their productivity, their political involvement in the profession and the methods they used for coping with the multiple responsibilities of career and family life. The study was conducted by mailing a questionnaire to all Canadian female chiropractors. The results indicate that the vast majority of respondents are relatively new practitioners, having graduated since 1976.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of a Tai Chi workplace wellness program as a cost effective way of improving physical and mental health, reducing work related stress, and improving work productivity among older nurses in a hospital setting Design A randomized control trial of two groups (control and Tai Chi group). DESIGN: A randomized control trial of two groups (control and Tai Chi group). SETTINGS: Northeastern academic medical center. SUBJECTS: A convenience sample of eleven female nurses (mean age 54.4 years).