Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are the predominant long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) among membrane phospholipids in the mammalian brain and neural tissues. This cross-sectional study examined age effects on serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA, and ARA compositions assessed with reference to dietary intakes among 1,014 Japanese men and 1,028 Japanese women aged 40-79 years. Venous blood was collected early in the morning after at least 12-h fasting. Serum fatty acid (FA) compositions were expressed as molar percentages of the total FA (mol% of total).
EPA-E, even at 3,000 mg/kg, p.o., did not affect the general behaviors, spontaneous locomotor activities, pentobarbital hypnosis and body temperature; and it did not elicit anticonvulsant, analgesic and muscle relaxant actions. It had no influence on spontaneous EEG activities, even at 3,000 mg/kg, i.d. EPA-E at concentrations up to 10(-4) M, did not affect the tonus or agonist-induced contraction of the isolated ileum, trachea, fundus and vas deferens. EPA-E had no influence on the spontaneous movement of isolated ileum or uterus.
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production by immune cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). Quality of life, fatty acid levels, and safety were also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten participants with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) received omega-3 FA supplementation (9.6g/day fish oil) in an open-label study. Participants were evaluated at four time points, baseline, after 1 month of omega-3 FA supplementation, after 3 months of omega-3 FA supplementation, and after a 3-month wash out.
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock syndrome are the leading causes of death in critically ill patients. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released by the colonic microorganisms may translocate across a compromised lumen, leading to upregulated reactive oxidative stress, inflammation, and sepsis. The authors examined an enteral formula high in cysteine (antioxidant precursor), omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) against systemic inflammatory syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and tolerability of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (EPA-E) monotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Fifty-seven adults with DSM-IV MDD were randomly assigned from January 2003 until June 2006 to receive 1 g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot study. Response criteria were on the basis of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Subjects' plasma lipid profiles were examined by gas chromatography.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
The popularity of natural or "alternative" remedies to treat medical and psychiatric disorders has accelerated dramatically over the past decade, in the United States and worldwide. This article reviews the evidence for clinical efficacy, active ingredients, mechanisms of action, recommended dosages, and toxicities of the 3 best-studied putative natural antidepressants, St. John's wort (hypericum), S-adenosyl methionine, and the Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
The therapeutic efficacy of individual components of fish oils (FOs) in various human inflammatory diseases still remains unresolved, possibly due to low levels of n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower ratio of DHA to EPA. Because FO enriched with DHA (FO-DHA) or EPA (FO-EPA) has become available recently, we investigated their efficacy on survival and inflammatory kidney disease in a well-established animal model of human systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of resolvin E1 (RvE1) to regulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activation of platelets via specific receptors because RvE1 reduces platelet aggregation with certain agonists, including ADP. METHODS AND RESULTS: RvE1 is an eicosapentaenoic acid-derived specialized proresolving mediator generated during the resolution of acute inflammation. RvE1 exhibits potent organ-protective actions in vivo and acts on specific cell types, including platelets.
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease. Although n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties, it is unclear whether n-3 fatty acids can treat or prevent periodontitis. METHOD: We studied 9,182 adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2004. Periodontitis was assessed by dental exam and was defined as >4 mm pocket depth and >3 mm attachment loss in any one tooth. Intake of n-3 fatty acids was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall.
The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20-59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study.