BACKGROUND: In a review and meta-analysis conducted in 1993, psychological preparation was found to be beneficial for a range of outcome variables including pain, behavioural recovery, length of stay and negative affect. Since this review, more detailed bibliographic searching has become possible, additional studies testing psychological preparation for surgery have been completed and hospital procedures have changed.
To evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of propofol during recovery after total intravenous anesthesia, 20 female patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied. In 10 patients (Group B) the propofol infusion was supplemented with an epidural block with bupivacaine to evaluate the relation between the blood concentration of propofol and various pharmacodynamic end-points. The remaining 10 patients (Group A) received an alfentanil infusion intravenously instead of the epidural block to assess the dynamic interactions of alfentanil and propofol.
The effect of tizanidine given as a premedication on perioperative hemodynamics (mean blood pressure, heart rate), sedation, hypnosis and midazolam requirements for induction were assessed in 68 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were assigned to three groups. Group 1 was premedicated 90 min prior to induction with tizanidine 4 mg po (n = 28); group 2 was premedicated with tizanidine 2 mg po (n = 12); group 3 received no premedication (n = 28).
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of a standardized stimulus during propofol-only hypnosis on the bispectral index (BIS) value with the effect of the injection of local anesthesia for surgery during ketamine plus propofol hypnosis (dissociative monitored anesthesia care). To determine whether ketamine increases the level of propofol hypnosis when used in dissociative doses. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Private practice office plastic surgery suites.
Memory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level (BIS 40 to 60). At this level, preserved memory function has been observed in trauma patients. We investigated memory formation in elective surgical outpatients during target-controlled propofol anesthesia supplemented with alfentanil.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Thiopental has been reported to reduce sympathetic tone, however, it is not clear whether change in heart rate variability is associated with depth of anaesthesia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate changes in heart rate variability at different depths of hypnosis during induction of anaesthesia with thiopental. METHODS: We studied 17 ASA I patients scheduled for minor surgery. The depth of hypnosis was monitored by the BIS.
BACKGROUND: The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring devices for assessing the depth of hypnosis is most difficult in children under 5 years of age. METHODS: Forty five children aged 0-60 months were included in a prospective observational study. A direct comparison of the processed EEG variables Bispectral Index (BIS, version 3.4) and Narcotrend Index (NI, version 2.0AF) was to be achieved by simultaneous recording. The ability of these parameters to differentiate between various clinical states was evaluated by using the prediction probability (P(k)).
BACKGROUND: Prayer is an important part of many patients' and physicians' lives. There is little data in the literature regarding patients' perception of prayer from or with their doctors. OBJECTIVE: To assess in a masked fashion patients' impression of prayer's role in a medical setting, and their perception of being offered and receiving prayer from their physician. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Confidential survey of 567 consecutive patients who were offered prayer by their physician before elective eye surgery.