Electrodes

Publication Title: 
Physical Therapy

In light of a developing, widespread interest in electromyographic biofeedback as both a clinical and research modality, this article reviews basic factors that the physical therapist must consider for successful biofeedback applications. These factors include the proper use and care of electrodes, correct grounding procedures, and appropriate feedback displays.

Author(s): 
Wolf, S. L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there are markers that can be used to study the effects of grounding on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Eight (8) healthy subjects were exposed to an eccentric exercise that caused DOMS in gastrocnemius muscles of both legs. Four (4) subjects were grounded with electrode patches and patented conductive sheets connected to the earth. Four (4) control subjects were treated identically, except that the grounding systems were not connected to the earth.

Author(s): 
Brown, Dick
Chevalier, Gaétan
Hill, Michael
Publication Title: 
Archives Italiennes De Biologie
Author(s): 
Carli, G.
Publication Title: 
Neuroreport

The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory ERP, reflecting the preattentive discrimination of change in stimulus flow, in normal baseline state and under hypnosis. It has been proposed that the frontal inhibition associated with hypnosis can be measured as a decrease in MMN. ERPs were elicited using the passive oddball paradigm with standard and deviant sine tone stimuli of 500 and 553Hz, respectively. The measurement was repeated in five separate sessions.

Author(s): 
Kallio, S.
Revonsuo, A.
Lauerma, H.
Hämäläinen, H.
Lang, H.
Publication Title: 
Acta Physiologica Hungarica

Hypnosis research of the last decades confirmed that some cortical regions show characteristic modification of spontaneous brain electrical activity as a function of hypnotic responsiveness. Using FFT spectrum of 16 channel EEG recording, it was demonstrated that in highly susceptible subjects the right parieto-temporal region show more electric power than the left one while the low susceptibles have left side predominance or equilibrated power in all derivations.

Author(s): 
Mészáros, I.
Szabó, C.
Publication Title: 
IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

A model-based closed-loop control system is presented to regulate hypnosis with the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. Hypnosis is assessed by means of the bispectral index (BIS), a processed parameter derived from the electroencephalogram. Isoflurane is administered through a closed-circuit respiratory system. The model for control was identified on a population of 20 healthy volunteers. It consists of three parts: a model for the respiratory system, a pharmacokinetic model and a pharmacodynamic model to predict BIS at the effect compartment. A cascaded internal model controller is employed.

Author(s): 
Gentilini, A.
Rossoni-Gerosa, M.
Frei, C. W.
Wymann, R.
Morari, M.
Zbinden, A. M.
Schnider, T. W.
Publication Title: 
Der Anaesthesist

INTRODUCTION: The Narcotrend is a new EEG monitor designed to measure the depth of anaesthesia based on a 6-letter classification from A (awake) to F (general anaesthesia with increasing burst suppression) and divided into 14 substages (A, B0-2, C0-2, D0-2, E0,1, F0,1). This study was designed to investigate the assessment of the depth of anaesthesia as measured by the Narcotrend in comparison with bispectral index monitoring (BIS). METHODS: Both BIS and Narcotrend EEG electrodes were positioned on the patient's forehead as recommended by the manufacturers.

Author(s): 
Kreuer, S.
Biedler, A.
Larsen, R.
Schoth, S.
Altmann, S.
Wilhelm, W.
Publication Title: 
Revista Española De Anestesiología Y Reanimación
Author(s): 
Gambús Cerrillo, P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology

PURPOSE: Measurement of brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and midlatency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) using a new monitor integrated module was compared with an established device. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the new system could replace the more inconvenient established technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MLAEP and BAEP were obtained from 19 anesthetized male patients using the AEP-Module for Monitor S/5 [GE, Helsinki, Finland (S/5)] and Neuropack 4 mini [Nihon Kohden, Tokyo, Japan (Neuropack)]. Significance of different results was calculated by paired t test.

Author(s): 
Fudickar, Axel
Kluzik, Anna
Weiler, Norbert
Scholz, Jens
Tonner, Peter Hans
Bein, Berthold
Publication Title: 
Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

A wax-impregnated carbon paste electrode with mercury oxalate as the bulk modifier is found to be suitable for the determination of heavy metal ions by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The contents of binder and modifier have been optimized, until they showed low background current and easy renewability. The bulk-modified electrode is applied for the simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in medicinal plants and Ayurvedic tablets (Liv 52). The results obtained have been validated with HMDE and AAS and are found to be comparable.

Author(s): 
Mascarenhas, Ronald J.
Satpati, Ashis K.
Yellappa, Shivaraj
Sherigara, Bailure S.
Bopiah, Ajjikuttira K.

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