Electrodes, Implanted

Publication Title: 
Biomaterials

Electronic retinal implants for the blind are already a market reality. A world wide effort is underway to find the technology that offers the best combination of performance and safety for potential patients. Our approach is to construct an epi-retinally targeted device entirely encapsulated in diamond to maximise longevity and biocompatibility. The stimulating array of our device comprises a monolith of electrically insulating diamond with thousands of hermetic, microscale nitrogen doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) feedthroughs.

Author(s): 
Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.
Leung, Ronald T.
Garrett, David J.
Ganesan, Kumaravelu
Fox, Kate
Nayagam, David A. X.
Shivdasani, Mohit N.
Meffin, Hamish
Ibbotson, Michael R.
Prawer, Steven
O'Brien, Brendan J.
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior
Author(s): 
Klemm, W. R.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pharmacology

Beagles, implanted with cortical and subcortical electrodes, were given etomidate i.v. (1 mg/kg) over a period of 10 sec. The effects on the EEG were compared with those obtained with 7 mg/kg of methohexital. Both compounds induced hypnosis for a duration of approximately 8 min. The EEGs showed a remarkable similarity. Visual inspection of the records as well as power spectrum analysis revealed a sustained theta-activity with underlying fast activity. The configuration of the waves was rather sharp.

Author(s): 
Wauquier, A.
van den Broeck, W. A.
Verheyen, J. L.
Janssen, P. A.
Publication Title: 
Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR
Author(s): 
Shvets-Ténéta-Guri?, T. B.
Publication Title: 
Fiziologiia Cheloveka
Author(s): 
Spivak, L. I.
Puzenko, V. Iu
Medvedev, S. V.
Poliakov, Iu I.
Publication Title: 
Zhurnal Vysshe? Nervno? Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova

The state of "animal hypnosis" in rabbits was created by the DC current anode applied to the sensorimotor cortical area of the left hemisphere. It was impossible to elicit the "animal hypnosis" during the optimum of the dominant. The state of "animal hypnosis" could be easily elicited against the background of weak motor dominant on the next day after its creation. The "animal hypnosis" restored the "left" motor dominant after its extinction.

Author(s): 
Rusinova, E. V.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We hypothesized that elevated partial pressures of O(2) would increase perivascular nitric oxide (*NO) synthesis. Rodents with O(2)- and.NO-specific microelectrodes implanted adjacent to the abdominal aorta were exposed to O(2) at partial pressures from 0.2 to 2.8 atmospheres absolute (ATA). Exposures to 2.0 and 2.8 ATA O(2) stimulated neuronal (type I) NO synthase (nNOS) and significantly increased steady-state.NO concentration, but the mechanism for enzyme activation differed at each partial pressure.

Author(s): 
Thom, Stephen R.
Fisher, Donald
Zhang, Jie
Bhopale, Veena M.
Ohnishi, S. Tsuyoshi
Kotake, Yashige
Ohnishi, Tomoko
Buerk, Donald G.
Publication Title: 
Epilepsia

PURPOSE: Because of the large and continuous energetic requirements of brain function, neurometabolic dysfunction is a key pathophysiologic aspect of the epileptic brain. Additionally, neurometabolic dysfunction has many self-propagating features that are typical of epileptogenic processes, that is, where each occurrence makes the likelihood of further mitochondrial and energetic injury more probable. Thus abnormal neurometabolism may be not only a chronic accompaniment of the epileptic brain, but also a direct contributor to epileptogenesis.

Author(s): 
Pan, Jullie W.
Williamson, Anne
Cavus, Idil
Hetherington, Hoby P.
Zaveri, Hitten
Petroff, Ognen A. C.
Spencer, Dennis D.
Publication Title: 
Epilepsy Research

EEG power and high frequency activity in the seizure onset zone has been increasingly considered for its relationship with seizures in animal and human studies of epilepsy. We examine the relationship between quantitative EEG measures and metabolic imaging in epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial EEG (icEEG) analysis for seizure localization. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and neocortical epilepsy (NE) were studied. Metabolic imaging was performed with MR spectroscopic imaging using N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr).

Author(s): 
Pan, J. W.
Zaveri, H. P.
Spencer, D. D.
Hetherington, H. P.
Spencer, S. S.
Publication Title: 
Neurosurgery

OBJECTIVE: There is limited available research measuring the cost-effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation (SCS), compared with best medical treatment/conventional pain therapy (CPT). The purpose of this study was to tabulate the actual costs (in Canadian dollars) for a consecutive series of patients treated with SCS in a constant health care delivery environment and to compare the costs with those for a control group treated in the same controlled environment. METHODS: We present a consecutive series of 104 patients with failed back syndrome.

Author(s): 
Kumar, Krishna
Malik, Samaad
Demeria, Denny

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