Patients with severe traumatic brain injury resulting in increased intracranial pressure refractory to first-tier interventions challenge the critical care team. After exhausting these initial interventions, critical care practitioners may utilize barbiturate-induced coma in an attempt to reduce the intracranial pressure. Titrating appropriate levels of barbiturate is imperative. Underdosing the drug may fail to control the intracranial pressure, whereas overdosing may lead to untoward effects such as hypotension and cardiac compromise.
BACKGROUND: Biopsychosocial treatments address the range of physical, psychological, and social components of chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: This review sought to determine how effective unimodal and multimodal biopsychosocial approaches are in the treatment of chronic pain. METHODOLOGY: The literature search identified three systematic reviews of the literature and 21 randomized controlled trials to provide the evidence for this review. RESULTS: The systematic reviews and 12 randomized controlled trials reported on chronic low back pain.
Bailliere's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
There is little empirical evidence for the effectiveness of physical and other non-pharmacological approaches to the management of fibromyalgia. Although a number of studies have been conducted into such approaches, many of these are uncontrolled, and relatively few randomized controlled trials of appropriate size and methodological rigour have been carried out.
OBJECTIVES: To review the quality of adverse event reporting for published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on acupuncture for pain reduction. With the release of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) in 2001, the quality of published RCTs has improved. To improve reporting on adverse events, CONSORT expanded the section on harms (adverse events) in 2004. This paper evaluates whether the updated harms guidelines have been implemented in RCTs evaluating acupuncture for pain relief.
Due to a change in the production schedule of this journal, two issues of this article were due within a month of each other, which precluded the usual group of authors from contributing to the current paper, but they will participate in this review in the next issue. This overview includes several articles questioning the use of dry needling (DN) by non-acupuncturists, which continues to be a controversial topic especially in the United States. Several researchers examined the effects of manual trigger point (TrP) techniques applied to TrPs in the upper trapezius muscle.
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the processing time and neuromuscular delay required to extract and process sensory information from the ankle in order to coordinate an upper extremity movement sequence. METHODS: Nineteen able-bodied subjects were tested on their ability to perform a motor task that involved extension of their left index finger when their left ankle was passively plantar flexed at random velocities through a predetermined target angle. RESULTS: We found that the able-bodied subjects were able to adjust their finger responses up to ankle velocities of 70 degrees /s (300 ms).
Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning.
Research on the neural mechanisms of face identity constitutes a fruitful method to explore the affective contributions to face processing. Here, we investigated central and peripheral electrophysiological indices associated with the perception of loved faces. Subjects viewed black-and-white photographs of faces that belonged to one of five categories: loved ones, famous people, unknown people, babies, and neutral faces from the Eckman and Friesen system. Subcategories of loved faces included romantic partner, parents, siblings, second-degree relatives, and friends.
The present research investigated whether accommodation, typically formulated as the tendency to deliberately inhibit a destructive reaction in response to a partner's destructive behavior, could also occur spontaneously. Supporting this notion, results of the first study revealed that participants respond to their partner's angry face with a spontaneous smile, whereas strangers' angry faces are mimicked and thus lead to a spontaneous frown.
A major problem in recent neuroscience research on the processing of loved familiar faces is the absence of evidence concerning the elicitation of a genuine positive emotional response (love). These studies have two confounds: familiarity and arousal. The present investigation controlled for both factors in female university students. Two categories of loved faces were chosen: one with higher familiarity but lower emotionality (fathers) and the other with higher emotionality but lower familiarity (romantic partners). Unfamiliar and baby faces were used as control faces.