Vertebrates exposed to stressful conditions release glucocorticoids to sustain energy expenditure. In most species elevated glucocorticoids inhibit reproduction. However individuals with limited remaining reproductive opportunities cannot afford to forgo reproduction and should resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of reproductive behavior. The electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio has a single breeding season in its lifetime, thus we expect males to resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of their sexual advertisement signals. We studied stress resistance in male B.
A major problem in recent neuroscience research on the processing of loved familiar faces is the absence of evidence concerning the elicitation of a genuine positive emotional response (love). These studies have two confounds: familiarity and arousal. The present investigation controlled for both factors in female university students. Two categories of loved faces were chosen: one with higher familiarity but lower emotionality (fathers) and the other with higher emotionality but lower familiarity (romantic partners). Unfamiliar and baby faces were used as control faces.
Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study.
Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information.
General anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness covers a spectrum of different behavioral components, namely, (1) amnesia, (2) sedation/hypnosis, (3) analgesia, and (4) immobility. At the molecular and cellular level, anesthetic drugs have been shown to have effects on a wide rage of putative targets, such as ligand-gated ion channels (GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors), other ion channels (K+, Na+, Ca2+), and other intracellular functions. This mini-review summarizes recent topics in this research field focusing on NMDA and GABA receptors.
Although general anesthetics were first used more than 160 years ago, their mechanisms have remained mysterious. During the past decade, significant progress in our understanding of general anesthetic action at the cellular and network system levels has been made.
The plant Withania somnifera (WS), also known as Ashwagandha, has been used widely in traditional medicine systems in India and Nepal (Ayurveda), and has been accepted to cure various ailments. In this study, the whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the mechanism of action of WS on the SG neurons of the Vc from mouse brainstem slices. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, methanol extract of Withania somnifera (mWS) induced short-lived and repeatable inward currents in all SG neurons tested (31.3 ± 8.51 pA, n = 7) using a high chloride pipette solution.
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Electrical signals between connected neural nuclei are difficult to model because of the complexity and high number of paths within the brain. Simple parametric models are therefore often used. A multiscale version of the autoregressive with exogenous input (MS-ARX) model has recently been developed which allows selection of the optimal amount of filtering and decimation depending on the signal-to-noise ratio and degree of predictability.
Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, I Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Examination of 1326 children and adolescents revealed physiological asymmetry of neuro-orthopedic status in 57% of the subjects, functional scoliosis in 33%, and structural scoliosis in 4.5%. Only 5.5% of the examined children and adolescents did not show clinical and functional signs of spinal pathology. Treatment with mechanical vibrations (vibro-massage or "swing" therapy), pulsed extremely high frequency (EHF) waves and electrical current yielded good therapeutic effect in cases with idiopathic scoliosis.
Journal of Smooth Muscle Research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Effects of acupuncture treatment on mechanical responses produced by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS) and acetylcholine (ACh) were investigated in circular smooth muscle preparations isolated from the antrum of the stomach of genetically hyperglycemic rats. While control rats had blood glucose levels of about 140 mg/dl, this was approximately tripled in the genetically hyperglycemic rats, but only doubled in the acupuncture treated genetically hyperglycemic rats.