Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Concern for the suffering of others is central to moral decision making. How humans evaluate others' suffering, relative to their own suffering, is unknown. We investigated this question by inviting subjects to trade off profits for themselves against pain experienced either by themselves or an anonymous other person. Subjects made choices between different amounts of money and different numbers of painful electric shocks. We independently varied the recipient of the shocks (self vs. other) and whether the choice involved paying to decrease pain or profiting by increasing pain.
Conditioning of fear reactions to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a footshock unconditioned stimulus (US) involves CS transmission to the amygdala from the auditory thalamus, the auditory cortex, or both. This article presents a simple neural network model of this neural system. The model consists of modules of mutually inhibitory nonlinear units representing the different relevant anatomical structures of the thalamo-amygdala and thalamo-corticoamygdala circuitry.
In rats, propranolol potentiated alcohol and pentobarbitone hypnosis, but not barbital sleeping time, indicating enzyme inhibition as a possible mechanism of potentiation. Propranolol showed anticonvulsant effect on normal and reserpine treated rats by MES test, but showed dose related lowering of MET. Probable mechanisms are discussed.
A series of newly synthesized N-phenyl-substituted derivatives of succinimide were screened for anticonvulsant activity. Addition of a sulfonamide group in the p-position was of great consequence for the anticonvulsant effect. Substitution of a halogen in the m- or o-position improved activity against electroshock induced seizures. Pentylenetetrazole convulsions could only be prevented by few of these substances in smaller than 200 mg/kg oral doses. Activity could be further enhanced by adding more aliphatic or aromatic groups to the succinimide ring.
The known sesquiterpene valeranone (= Yatamanson) was isolated from the subterranian parts of Nardostachys yatamansi (DC). It was pharmacologically investigated in animal experiments of sedative, tranquilizing and antihypertensive properties. In some experiments, typical for tranquilizers, certain activities could be demonstrated such as the prolongation of barbiturate hypnosis, the impairment of rotarod performance, an anticonvulsive activity on electric shock and potentiation of the body-temperature lowering activity of reserpine.
Propane-1,2-diol (propylene glycol, PG), considered to be a safe solvent and commonly used as a vehicle in pharmacological and toxicological investigations, showed various neuropsychopharmacological activity in albino mice and rats. In lower concentrations (10-20%), at dose level of 10 ml/kg, PG did not show any significant neuropsychopharmacological activity either by i.p. or p.o. routes. But higher concentrations (50-100%), at same dose level by i.p. route, were found to have moderate to marked effect.
"Cinkara", a polyherbal preparation reduced pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice, decreased apomorphine induced fighting, aggression and stereotypy and increased amphetamine induced aggregated toxicity in mice. It also increased immobility of rats in forced swimming test, an action which was not blocked by chlor-promazine, and increased ambulation in open arena test. It did not modify electrically induced convulsions or haloperidol catalepsy.
Beraprost sodium (sodium (+/-)-(1R*,2R*,3aS*,8bS*)-2,3,3a,8b-tetrahydro-2- hydroxy-1-[(E)-(3S*)-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-octen-6-ynyl]-1H- cyclopenta[b]benzofuran-5-butyrate, TRK-100) is an orally active epoprostenol (prostaglandin I2, PGI2) analogue. Its effect on the central nervous system (CNS) was studied. 1. When orally administered in mice, beraprost sodium at 0.3 mg/kg caused a flush of skin, a suppression of spontaneous motility, and a fall of body temperature.