Certain restrictions on public funding for assisted reproductive technology (ART) are articulated and defended by recourse to a distinction between medical infertility and social infertility. We propose that underlying the prioritization of medical infertility is a vision of medicine whose proper role is to restore but not to improve upon nature. We go on to mark moral responses that speak of investments many continue to make in nature as properly an object of reverence and gratitude and therein (sometimes) a source of moral guidance.
In 1980, drug consumption per capita was 455 Swedish crowns (SEK) in Sweden, SEK 452 in Denmark, SEK 384 in Finland and SEK 382 in Norway; actual figures for Denmark, Finland and Norway being converted into Swedish crowns using the mean 1980 exchange rates. To what extent can these differences be explained by differences in the drug reimbursement programmes of these four Nordic countries?
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of poverty, program generosity, and health on state variations in enrollment of children and adolescents in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program during recent program expansions. METHODS: The relationship of state SSI rates for 1989 and 1992 to child poverty, health, and program generosity were determined by multiple regression. RESULTS: The mean percentage of children enrolled grew from 0.36% (1989) to 0.75% (1992). Poverty rates accounted for 78% of the variance among states in 1989 and 53% in 1992.
Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
This paper examines the effect of changing state policy, such as Medicaid eligibility, payment generosity, and HMO enrollment on provision of hospital uncompensated care. Using national data from the American Hospital Association for the period 1990 through 1995, we find that not-for-profit and public hospitals' uncompensated care levels respond positively to Medicaid payment generosity, although the magnitude of the effect is small. Not-for-profit hospitals respond negatively to Medicaid HMO penetration.
There is substantial variation in the generosity of public assistance programs that affect HIV+ patients, and these differences should affect the economic outcomes associated with HIV infection. This article uses data from a nationally representative sample of HIV+ patients to assess how differences across states in Medicaid and AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) affect costs and labor market outcomes for HIV+ patients in care in that state.
International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
For much of the postwar period, the Australian welfare state has been misunderstood by overseas social policy commentators. The lack of generosity of welfare payments has been substantially compensated for by a system of wage regulation that has prevented waged poverty and delivered a reduced disparity of incomes.
OBJECTIVE: The 2003 Medicare Modernization Act shifted medication coverage from Medicaid to Medicare for persons dually eligible for both programs. This study examined the extent to which access to psychiatric and concomitant medications was reduced for dually eligible individuals in New York State. It also examined the extent to which consumer copayments and state costs were changed when the act was implemented in 2006.
BACKGROUND: Reductions in the eligibility requirements and generosity of disability benefits have been introduced in several Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in recent years, on the assumption that this will increase work incentives for people with chronic illness and disabilities. This paper systematically reviews the evidence for this assumption in the context of well-developed welfare systems.
International differences in long-term care (LTC) use are well documented, but not well understood. Using comparable data from two countries with universal public LTC insurance, the Netherlands and Germany, we examine how institutional differences relate to differences in the choice for informal and formal LTC. Although the overall LTC utilization rate is similar in both countries, use of formal care is more prevalent in the Netherlands and informal care use in Germany.
Currently, in many countries most workers are covered by a national social security benefits program that applies equally in all parts of the country. In China, however, social security old-age benefits are provided in a highly fragmented manner. This article documents the high degree of fragmentation. It discusses both why that has occurred and the effects of the fragmentation on participants. It examines effects of the fragmentation on benefit levels, focusing on variations in the generosity of benefit formulas but also considering other measures of benefit adequacy.