Empirical Approach

Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate whether, and if so, how published sham-controlled trials of acupuncture report on the information given to patients about true and sham interventions. We asked acupuncture therapists to provide original patient information leaflets in order to study how interventions were described in more detail.

Author(s): 
Linde, Klaus
Dincer, Figen
Publication Title: 
Studies in Family Planning

This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance.

Author(s): 
Johansson, A.
Nga, N. T.
Huy, T. Q.
Dat, D. D.
Holmgren, K.
Publication Title: 
Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing

Catholic hospitals maintain a significant presence in delivering hospital services in the United States, but little is known about the ways they differ from other ownership forms in similar market environments. This paper analyzes characteristics of Catholic, other private nonprofit, and investor-owned hospitals in metropolitan areas of the United States to identify the extent to which Catholic hospitals differ from other ownership types on three dimensions of mission-driven identity--access, stigmatized, and compassionate care services.

Author(s): 
White, K. R.
Begun, J. W.
Publication Title: 
Lancet (London, England)

In a random sample of 262 deaths, 21% of the patients lived alone and a quarter of the caring relatives were over 70 years old. The difficulties of the relatives were more often a cause for hospital admission than those of the patients. Health professionals and relatives differed considerably in their assessment of the same case. 24% of relatives were especially grateful to their general practitioners but 37% were critical. The uncaring attitude of the hospitals was criticised by 27% of the relatives, although hospital nurses were the most praised of all professionals.

Author(s): 
Wilkes, E.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Transplantation

The aim of this study was to explore the public's feelings and ideas with regard to receiving transplants of different origins. Sixty-nine individuals with varying sociodemographic background, selected from samples who had responded to a questionnaire on receiving and donating organs, were interviewed in-depth. A wide variety of reactions was displayed.

Author(s): 
Sanner, M. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Nursing Scholarship: An Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing

PURPOSE: To describe issues and dilemmas related to nonparticipation, attrition, and needs for assistance in research with vulnerable home hospice participants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis, with descriptive statistics of the frequency of issues and dilemmas that occurred in a research study with a vulnerable population.

Author(s): 
Dobratz, Marjorie C.
Publication Title: 
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law: An Official Law Review of the University of Arizona College of Law and the University of Miami School of Law

This study examines whether individuals who experienced involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC) attribute benefit to this intervention. It was found that the majority of experimental subjects who underwent a period of OPC did not personally endorse OPC's benefits at the end of the study, either because they did not think it improved treatment adherence or because they rejected their own need for continued treatment. However, at the end of the study, a positive appraisal of benefit was roughly twice as likely among subjects who actually experienced positive treatment outcomes.

Author(s): 
Swartz, Marvin S.
Swanson, Jeffrey W.
Monahan, John
Publication Title: 
Annals of Transplantation

This comprehensive article is based on three previous studies on people's reactions on receiving transplants of various kinds: a survey of the public, in-depth interviews with informants recruited from this survey and two other surveys, and in-depth interviews with heart and kidney recipients. The ideas and reactions of the public, when confronted with the issue of receiving a transplant in a hypothetic situation, vary from magical thinking to a conception of the body as an object in need of repair. The actual recipients show a similar variation in their reactions as the public.

Author(s): 
Sanner, Margareta A.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

The study compared personal interviews and a postal survey, posing the same questions to two random samples independently drawn from the same population. It sought reasons why respondents began and may subsequently terminate, involvement as voluntary blood donors in Toronto Canada. The priorities of respondents (ordinal rankings) were virtually identical in the two samples, notwithstanding a clear response rate and socio-economic differential between the modes. Differences in item response rates were compatible with explanations involving interviewer bias and question threat.

Author(s): 
Lightman, E. S.
Publication Title: 
JAMA

Attitudes toward clinical research, the focus of recent and damaging media attention, were assessed through questionnaires completed anonymously by 104 patients with cancer, 84 cardiology patients, and 107 members of the general public. Responses differed neither by subgroup nor by demographic variables. Data are therefore reported on the total population of 295 subjects. Most respondents (71%) believed that patients should serve as research subjects.

Author(s): 
Cassileth, B. R.
Lusk, E. J.
Miller, D. S.
Hurwitz, S.

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