BACKGROUND: This study aimed to formulate a water-in-oil emulsion (formulation) of Terminalia chebula versus its vehicle (base) as control, and investigate its effects on skin melanin, skin erythema, skin moisture content, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Base containing no active material, and formulation containing 5% concentrated extract of T. chebula, were developed. Different stability parameters were monitored at 8, 25, and 40 °C, as well as 40 °C + 75% relative humidity, for a period of 4 weeks.
The present study was designed to investigate the role of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified volatile anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting (i.p.) appropriate doses of ether, enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) injected different doses of strychnine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using the awaken test and the pain index in hot-plate test (HPPI) using the hot-plate test.
The present study was designed to investigate the role of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anaesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting appropriate doses of emulsified enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally injected different doses of AMPA and then observed the effects on the sleep time using hypnosis test and the tail-withdrawal latency using the tail-withdrawal test.
This study was designed to investigate the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneal injections of appropriate doses of enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally injected different doses of nicotine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using awaken test and the pain threshold in hot-plate test (HPPT) using hot-plate test.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical use of a lipid propofol formulation causes pain during injection, allergic reactions, and bacterial growth. Propofol has been reformulated in different non-lipid presentations to reduce the incidence of adverse effects, but those changes can modify its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In the present study, we investigate the pharmacology and toxicology of lipid propofol (CLP) and the non-lipid nanoemulsion (NLP).
In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified sevoflurane. A mouse model of hypnosis and analgesia was established by an intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection of emulsified sevoflurane.We intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) administered YM-31636, a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, to mice and observed sleep time during hypnosis.
In the present study, the role of kainate (KA) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anesthetics was investigated. A mouse model of hypnosis and analgesia was established by an intraperitoneal injection of emulsified enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane. We intracerebroventricularly (icv) or intrathecally (it) administered KA, a KA receptor agonist to mice. The effects of the KA on the sleep time were observed using a hypnosis test, and the tail-withdrawal latency was analyzed using the tail-withdrawal test.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals
The objective of this study was to investigate whether the decrease in artemisinin bioavailability after repeated oral dosing in humans can be a result of increased efflux of artemisinin by P-glycoprotein or decreased membrane transport at the intestinal barrier. The effective jejunal permeability (Peff) of artemisinin was investigated using an in situ rat perfusion model. Fifty-four rats were randomized to one of three treatment arms: no pretreatment, pretreatment with artemisinin emulsion for 5 days (60 mg/kg/day, p.o. ), or pretreatment with emulsion vehicle for 5 days.
Parasitic diseases are of immense global significance as around 30% of world's population experiences parasitic infections. Among these, malaria is the most life-threatening disease. Various routes of administration have been explored for delivering antimalarial actives. The present investigation aims at formulating self-microemulsifying suppositories of ?-artemether with faster onset of action and prolonged effect to be administered by rectal route.
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) combination therapy is now the most used anti-malarial treatment in the world. Quality control of AL formulations is still a major challenge in developing countries. Until now, only liquid chromatographic methods have been reported in the literature for their analysis. Capillary electrophoretic methods, which present various advantages (low price of capillary, low volumes of electrolyte consumption), may be an alternative to liquid chromatography methods.