The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: The Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
SETTING: The Northern Cape province, Republic of South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To explore factors that motivate lay volunteers to join tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in high burden but resource-limited settings. DESIGN: A qualitative study consisting of three focus group discussions and a documentary review of the records of 347 lay volunteers involved in the tuberculosis programme in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. Additional data were also collected in a cross-sectional study that involved questionnaire interviews with 135 lay volunteers.
OBJECTIVE: The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in Vietnam is based on application of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), spraying of insecticides and early microscopic diagnosis of malaria and treatment (EDTM) with artemisinin drugs. This study explores the implementation of the NMCP at provincial level and its impact on malaria incidence (mi) and prevalence in Binh Thuan in southern Vietnam.
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria (EDTM) is a key component of malaria control. The success of EDTM depends on health seeking behaviour and the quality of the health service. This study assessed self-diagnosis, treatment and treatment delay after the introduction of EDTM in 1993. In southern Vietnam EDTM comprises microscopic diagnosis and free treatment with artemisinin derivatives at public health facilities. Until 2001, 1698 questionnaires had been completed by patients participating in randomized treatment trials of uncomplicated malaria.
Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for > or = 72 h.
OBJECTIVE: Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is involved in the metabolism of artemisinin drugs, a novel series of antimalarials. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of the most commonly observed CYP2B6 alleles in malaria-endemic populations of West Africa (WA) and Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: Using a post-PCR ligation detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay, frequencies of CYP2B6*1A, *2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *9 were determined in WA (n=166) and PNG (n=174).
Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum pfmdr1 gene were assayed in pretreatment samples and in samples from patients reinfected following therapy with artemether-lumefantrine. The pfmdr1 alleles 86N, 184F, and 1246D significantly increased in prevalence after treatment. All samples had a single pfmdr1 copy. Treatment with artemether-lumefantrine selects for polymorphisms that may alter antimalarial drug response.
OBJECTIVE: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 are involved in the metabolism of antimalarial dihydroartemisinin and antiretroviral zidovudine. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence of UGT1A9 (chromosome 2) and UGT2B7 (chromosome 4) nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in West African (WA), Papua New Guinean (PNG), and North American (NA) populations.
OBJECTIVES: Artemisinin-derivative drugs are widely used to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria and very few studies have investigated the quality of these medicines in Africa. We analysed the active ingredient contents of artemisinin-derivative drugs marketed in Kenya and DR Congo. METHODS: We analysed tablets, capsules, dry suspensions and injections (IM) containing either artemether (AM), arteether (AE), artesunate (ARS) or dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The content of active ingredients and preservatives was determined quantitatively using validated HPLC-UV methods.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping of malaria parasites in drug efficacy trials helps differentiate reinfections from recrudescences. A combination therapy trial of one (n = 115) or three (n = 117) days artesunate (1AS, 3AS 4 mg/kg/day) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) vs. SP alone (n = 153) was conducted in Mbarara, a mesoendemic area of western Uganda.
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda.