Endocrine Glands

Publication Title: 
Endocrine Reviews

Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final occurrence of natural sterility. Endocrine changes mainly relate to the decline in the negative feedback from ovarian factors at the hypothalamo-pituitary unit.

Author(s): 
Broekmans, F. J.
Soules, M. R.
Fauser, B. C.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have demonstrated similarities between the underpinning of frailty and biological features of centenarians, suggesting that adaptability to age-related multiple physiological decline may be a core component of successful aging. The aim of this study is to determine whether hormonal pathways potentially involved in energy homeostasis contribute to survival beyond 100 years of age.

Author(s): 
Arai, Yasumichi
Takayama, Michiyo
Gondo, Yasuyuki
Inagaki, Hiroki
Yamamura, Ken
Nakazawa, Susumu
Kojima, Toshio
Ebihara, Yoshinori
Shimizu, Kenichirou
Masui, Yukie
Kitagawa, Koji
Takebayashi, Toru
Hirose, Nobuyoshi
Publication Title: 
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

Current evidence suggests that similar to other tissues in the human body mammary epithelia cells are being maintained by the unique properties of stem cells, undifferentiated as well as lineage-restricted progenitors. Because of their longevity, proliferation and differentiation potentials these primitive breast epithelial cells are likely targets of transforming mutations that can cause them to act as cancer initiating cells.

Author(s): 
Raouf, Afshin
Sun, Yujia
Chatterjee, Sumanta
Basak, Pratima
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

One of the most robust observations in the biology of aging is that caloric restriction (CR) extends life in a variety of species. Although CR results in a severalfold decrease in fat mass (FM), the role of fat on life extension was considered to be minimal. Two main reasons accounted for this belief. First, although increased FM is associated with changes in substrate oxidation and in glucose homeostasis, in part through the effects of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol, several studies have suggested that longevity is determined independent of FM.

Author(s): 
Barzilai, N.
Gupta, G.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight protein with anti-apoptotic properties that has been demonstrated to scavenge free radicals in vitro. MT has not been extensively investigated within the context of aging biology. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss findings on MT that are relevant to basic aging mechanisms and to draw attention to the possible role of MT in pro-longevity interventions. MT is one of just a handful of proteins that, when overexpressed, has been demonstrated to increase mouse lifespan.

Author(s): 
Swindell, William R.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacotherapy

Sufentanil citrate is a potent analogue of fentanyl that has been evaluated primarily for use in opioid anesthesia. It is a pure mu receptor agonist and produces the typical spectrum of opioid effects. The major side effects are truncal rigidity and prolonged respiratory depression. In doses of 4-30 micrograms/kg sufentanil produces hypnosis and suppresses most hemodynamic and hormonal responses to surgery without producing significant cardiovascular depression. In this respect sufentanil and fentanyl have clear advantages over morphine, meperidine and potent inhalation anesthetics.

Author(s): 
Rosow, C. E.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Despite aromatherapy's popularity, efficacy data are scant, and potential mechanisms are controversial. This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor (lavender), one stimulant odor (lemon), and a no-odor control (water), before and after a stressor (cold pressor); 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits.

Author(s): 
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
Graham, Jennifer E.
Malarkey, William B.
Porter, Kyle
Lemeshow, Stanley
Glaser, Ronald
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Despite aromatherapy's popularity, efficacy data are scant, and potential mechanisms are controversial. This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor (lavender), one stimulant odor (lemon), and a no-odor control (water), before and after a stressor (cold pressor); 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits.

Author(s): 
Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
Graham, Jennifer E.
Malarkey, William B.
Porter, Kyle
Lemeshow, Stanley
Glaser, Ronald
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Losses in physiological function in healthy ageing occur partly as a consequence of reduced protein intake and partly as a consequence of less than 30-min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The current study aimed to compare the effects of two different intensities of resistance training in healthy older adults, whose habitual dietary intake was supplemented with carbohydrate and amino acid preparations.

Author(s): 
Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys Leopoldine
Breen, Leigh
Stewart, Claire E.
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

Losses in physiological function in healthy ageing occur partly as a consequence of reduced protein intake and partly as a consequence of less than 30-min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The current study aimed to compare the effects of two different intensities of resistance training in healthy older adults, whose habitual dietary intake was supplemented with carbohydrate and amino acid preparations.

Author(s): 
Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys Leopoldine
Breen, Leigh
Stewart, Claire E.

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