Endocytosis

Publication Title: 
Biomaterials

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of widely used nanomaterials in industry and biomedicine. The potential impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was evaluated using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a toxicological animal model. SWCNTs are extremely hydrophobic to form large agglomerates in aqueous solutions. Highly soluble amide-modified SWCNTs (a-SWCNTs) were therefore used in the present study so that the exact impact of SWCNTs could be studied. No significant toxicity was observed in C. elegans due to the amide modification.

Author(s): 
Chen, Po-Hsuan
Hsiao, Kuang-Ming
Chou, Cheng-Chung
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Endocytosis is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells and fulfills numerous functions, most notably, that of macromolecular nutrient uptake. Malaria parasites invade red blood cells and during their intracellular development endocytose large amounts of host cytoplasm for digestion in a specialized lysosomal compartment, the food vacuole. In the present study we have examined the effects of artemisinin and the quinoline drugs chloroquine and mefloquine on endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum.

Author(s): 
Hoppe, Heinrich C.
van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.
Wiehart, Ursula I. M.
Meredith, Sandra A.
Egan, Joanne
Weber, Brandon W.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Combination regimens that include artemisinin derivatives are recommended as first line antimalarials in most countries where malaria is endemic. However, the mechanism of action of artemisinin is not fully understood and the usefulness of this drug class is threatened by reports of decreased parasite sensitivity. We treated Plasmodium falciparum for periods of a few hours to mimic clinical exposure to the short half-life artemisinins. We found that drug treatment retards parasite growth and inhibits uptake of hemoglobin, even at sublethal concentrations.

Author(s): 
Klonis, Nectarios
Crespo-Ortiz, Maria P.
Bottova, Iveta
Abu-Bakar, Nurhidanatasha
Kenny, Shannon
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Tilley, Leann
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: In addition to being a cardiovascular risk marker, recent studies support a role for CRP in atherothrombosis. Several investigators have reported that CRP binds to Fcgamma receptors on leukocytes. The aim of the study is to determine the processing of CRP by human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Binding studies were performed by incubation of HAECs with biotinylated CRP (B-CRP, 25 to 200 microg/mL) for 30 to 180 minutes at 4 degrees C. B-CRP binding was quantitated using streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate followed by flow cytometry.

Author(s): 
Devaraj, Sridevi
Du Clos, Terry W.
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
Journal of Proteome Research

Exosomes represent a discrete population of vesicles that are secreted from various cell types to the extracellular media. Their protein and lipid composition are a consequence of sorting events at the level of the multivesicular body, a central organelle which integrates endocytic and secretory pathways. Characterization of exosomes from different biological samples has shown the presence of common as well as cell-type specific proteins. Remarkably, the protein content of the exosomes is modified upon pathological or stress conditions.

Author(s): 
Conde-Vancells, Javier
Rodríguez-Suárez, Eva
Embade, Nieves
Gil, David
Matthiesen, Rune
Valle, Mikel
Elortza, Felix
Lu, Shelly C.
Mato, José M.
Falcon-Perez, Juan M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Abnormal folding of tau protein leads to the generation of paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles, a key neuropathological feature in Alzheimer disease and tauopathies. A specific anatomical pattern of pathological changes developing in the brain suggests that once tau pathology is initiated it propagates between neighboring neuronal cells, possibly spreading along the axonal network. We studied whether PHFs released from degenerating neurons could be taken up by surrounding cells and promote spreading of tau pathology.

Author(s): 
Santa-Maria, Ismael
Varghese, Merina
Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna
Dzhun, Anastasiya
Wang, Jun
Pasinetti, Giulio M.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Pharmacology

Our seminal discovery of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation has prompted a new field of investigation for the development of experimental therapeutics. We previously reported that a major Danshen ingredient, tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSN-SS), selectively inhibited endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release and conferred protection against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Yusong
Li, Wei
Zhu, Shu
Jundoria, Arvin
Li, Jianhua
Yang, Huan
Fan, Saijun
Wang, Ping
Tracey, Kevin J.
Sama, Andrew E.
Wang, Haichao
Publication Title: 
Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire)

AIMS: Zinc is an ion that participates in basic cellular and tissular functions. Zinc deficiency is present in many physiological and health problems affecting most body organs, including the brain. Among the circumstances involved in zinc deficiency, ethanol consumption is probably one of the most frequent. A dietary zinc supplement has been proposed as possibly being an efficient method to palliate zinc deficiency. Astrocytes form part of the hematoencephalic barrier, and they are apparently implicated in the homeostasis of the neuronal medium.

Author(s): 
Ballestín, Raúl
Molowny, Asunción
Marín, María Pilar
Esteban-Pretel, Guillermo
Romero, Ana María
Lopez-Garcia, Carlos
Renau-Piqueras, Jaime
Ponsoda, Xavier
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