Endopeptidases

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that control the post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin and in turn regulate diverse cellular pathways. Despite a growing understanding of DUB biology at the structural and molecular level, little is known about the physiological importance of most DUBs. Here, we systematically identify DUBs encoded by the genome of Drosophila melanogaster and examine their physiological importance in vivo. Through domain analyses we uncovered 41 Drosophila DUBs, most of which have human orthologues.

Author(s): 
Tsou, Wei-Ling
Sheedlo, Michael J.
Morrow, Marie E.
Blount, Jessica R.
McGregor, Kelly M.
Das, Chittaranjan
Todi, Sokol V.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Aging is characterized by accumulation of potentially harmful altered proteins that could lead to gradual deterioration of cellular functions and eventually result in increased probability of death. Metabolic turnover of proteins thus plays an essential role in maintaining the life of an organism. In this article we summarize our current knowledge on age-related changes in protein turnover with special reference to degradation. Increase in half-life of proteins with advancing age is well documented.

Author(s): 
Goto, S.
Takahashi, R.
Kumiyama, A. A.
Rad·k, Z.
Hayashi, T.
Takenouchi, M.
Abe, R.
Publication Title: 
Food & Function

Black rice is rich in anthocyanin antioxidants. The present study investigated the lifespan-prolonging activity of black rice extracts (BREs) and its effect on gene expressions of CuZnSOD (SOD1), MnSOD (SOD2), catalase (CAT), methuselah (Mth) and Rpn11 involved in the antioxidant system and ageing of fruit flies. The OR wild type fly was maintained on a control diet or two experimental diets containing 10 mg ml(-1) BRE (BRE10) or 30 mg ml(-1) BRE (BRE30).

Author(s): 
Zuo, Yuanyuan
Peng, Cheng
Liang, Yintong
Ma, Ka Ying
Yu, Hongjian
Edwin Chan, Ho Yin
Chen, Zhen-Yu
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

The present study investigated the anti-ageing activity of sesamin and its effect on gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (Mth) and Rpn11 in Drosophila melanogaster. Results demonstrated that 0.2†% sesamin in diet prolonged the mean lifespan of OR wild fruit flies by 12†%, accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2, CAT and Rpn11. Sesamin at 0.2†% in diet also attenuated paraquat-induced neurodegeneration with up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and Rpn11 in OR wild fruit flies.

Author(s): 
Zuo, Yuanyuan
Peng, Cheng
Liang, Yintong
Ma, Ka Ying
Chan, Ho Yin Edwin
Huang, Yu
Chen, Zhen-Yu
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG), separated with protein G affinity chromatography, and IgG in colostral whey were encapsulated by 0.5% (w/v) of Tween 80, sucrose stearate, or soy protein, which were used as secondary emulsifiers in the water in oil in water type multiple emulsion. The residual contents of separated IgG and IgG in colostral whey, ranging from 58.7 to 49.7% and from 13.2 to 21.3%, respectively, in the inner water phase (water phase surrounded by oil phase) with emulsifiers were determined by ELISA.

Author(s): 
Chen, C. C.
Tu, Y. Y.
Chang, H. M.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Vision

PURPOSE: The purpose was to characterize the properties of a proteinase activity associated with betaA3-crystallin, which was isolated from the alpha-crystallin fraction of human lenses. METHODS: An inactive, Arg-bond hydrolyzing proteinase in the alpha-crystallin fraction, which was isolated from the water soluble (WS) protein fraction of 60- to 70-year-old human lenses, was activated by sodium deoxycholate treatment.

Author(s): 
Srivastava, O. P.
Srivastava, K.
Chaves, J. M.
Publication Title: 
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry

Royal jelly (RJ), the exclusive food for queen bees, is taken as a dietary supplement because it is highly rich in nutrients. However, RJ is known to induce an anaphylactic response in some individuals. We evaluated in the present study the hypoallergenicity of alkaline protease-treated RJ in vitro and in vivo. We first confirmed that this treated RJ contained the same levels of vitamins, minerals and specific fatty acid as in untreated RJ.

Author(s): 
Moriyama, Tatsuya
Yanagihara, Miyako
Yano, Erika
Kimura, Goro
Seishima, Mariko
Tani, Hiroko
Kanno, Tomoko
Nakamura-Hirota, Tooru
Hashimoto, Ken
Tatefuji, Tomoki
Ogawa, Tadashi
Kawamura, Yukio
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

This study was designed to explore the possibility that caloric restriction (CR) may benefit Alzheimer's disease (AD) by preventing beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology pivotal to the initiation and progression of the disease. We report that a CR dietary regimen prevents Abeta peptides generation and neuritic plaque deposition in the brain of a mouse model of AD neuropathology through mechanisms associated with promotion of anti-amyloidogenic alpha-secretase activity.

Author(s): 
Wang, Jun
Ho, Lap
Qin, Weiping
Rocher, Anne B.
Seror, Ilana
Humala, Nelson
Maniar, Kruti
Dolios, Georgia
Wang, Rong
Hof, Patrick R.
Pasinetti, Giulio Maria
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies

OBJECTIVE: Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet.

Author(s): 
Rasmussen, Michael Højby
Juul, Anders
Kjems, Lise Lund
Hilsted, Jannik
Publication Title: 
Nature Cell Biology

SIRT1 is the closest mammalian homologue of yeast SIR2, an important ageing regulator that prolongs lifespan in response to caloric restriction. Despite its importance, the mechanisms that regulate SIRT1 activity are unclear. Our study identifies a novel post-translational modification of SIRT1, namely sumoylation at Lys 734. In vitro sumoylation of SIRT1 increased its deacetylase activity. Conversely, mutation of SIRT1 at Lys 734 or desumoylation by SENP1, a nuclear desumoylase, reduced its deacetylase activity.

Author(s): 
Yang, Yonghua
Fu, Wei
Chen, Jiandong
Olashaw, Nancy
Zhang, Xiaohong
Nicosia, Santo V.
Bhalla, Kapil
Bai, Wenlong

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