Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac.
Increasing adoption of transgenic crops expressing cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) represents an augmented risk for development of insect resistance. While fitness costs can greatly influence the rate of resistance evolution, most available data related to Bt resistance have been obtained from laboratory-selected insect strains. In this article, we test the existence of fitness costs associated with high levels of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize event TC1507 in a strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) originated from maize fields in Puerto Rico.
Endotoxemia decreases the dose requirement for anesthetics but no data are available for propofol. A rat model was used in which the influence of endotoxin administration on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol was investigated. Chronically instrumented rats were randomly allocated to either a control (n = 9) or an endotoxin (n = 9) group. Six hours after pretreatment with either endotoxin or its solvent, propofol was infused (150 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) until isoelectric periods of 5 s or longer were observed in the electroencephalogram.
Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains widespread problems in critically ill patients. The high mortality of sepsis is in part mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma) and late (e.g., HMGB1) pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains a widespread problem in critically ill patients. The high mortality from sepsis is in part mediated by bacterial endotoxin, which stimulates macrophages/monocytes to sequentially release early (e.g., tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interferon-gamma) and late [e.g., high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)] proinflammatory cytokines. Our discovery of HMGB1 as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation has initiated a new field of investigation for the development of experimental therapeutics.
Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized wildtype (WT) and endotoxin-resistant (ER) mice developed similar degrees of airways eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE levels after acute aerosolized OVA challenge. WT mice demonstrated methacholine hyperreactivity, whereas ER mice showed no change in responsiveness. With chronic aerosolized OVA challenge, both WT and ER mice developed local tolerance, with resolution of airway eosinophilia but persistence of anti-OVA IgE in serum.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypic marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in humans. There are questions regarding the validity of the biological effects reported for CRP, in spite of adherence to rigorous control measures minimizing endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] contamination in these in vitro studies. In this study, we addressed the key question of endotoxin contamination in CRP preparations using Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockdown endothelial cells.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the GSTM1 null genotype is a risk factor for increased inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin. METHODS: 35 volunteers who had undergone inhalation challenge with a 20 000 endotoxin unit dose of Clinical Center Reference Endotoxin (CCRE) were genotyped for the GSTM1 null polymorphism. Parameters of airway and systemic inflammation observed before and after challenge were compared in GSTM1 null (n=17) and GSTM1 (n=18) sufficient volunteers.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has been related to gut bacteria and inflammation in the setting of intestinal barrier dysfunction. We aimed to link the gut microbiome with cognition and inflammation in HE using a systems biology approach. Multitag pyrosequencing (MTPS) was performed on stool of cirrhotics and age-matched controls. Cirrhotics with/without HE underwent cognitive testing, inflammatory cytokines, and endotoxin analysis. Patients with HE were compared with those without HE using a correlation-network analysis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12).