OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review that aimed to document and describe how (1) expectation of benefit from treatment (response expectancies) were measured and reported in acupuncture trials, and (2) examine any effect on outcomes. DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CIHAHL, CENTRAL and Science and Technology Proceedings up to November 2007 for randomised (RCT) and quasi-randomised (CCT) controlled trials and prospective controlled cohorts of acupuncture as treatment for a medical or psychological condition in adults. An update citation search was conducted in April 2010.
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aetiology of age related diseases. Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify antioxidants in human foods and numerous promising compounds have been detected which are used for the production of supplements and functional foods. The present paper describes the advantages and limitations of methods which are currently used for the identification of antioxidants. Numerous in vitro methods are available which are easy to perform and largely used in screening trials.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: The longer healthy life expectancy observed in Japan may be partly attributed to the Japanese diet. The researchers sought to examine whether serum isoflavone levels are associated with disability and death. METHODS: The researchers used a nested case-control study to compare serum isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and equol) levels between 165 participants that died or were certificated as disabled (cases) and 177 controls. Disability was defined by certification of long-term care insurance.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A difficult issue in anaesthesia is its titration for an individual patient to avoid over- and underdosage. Common practice is to use an initial dose and increase it subsequently if the defined end-point is not reached. This assumes that the end-point is reached after a similar interval of time in all patients given a similar dose. In order to test this hypothesis we measured the time to reach end-points such as loss of consciousness (LOC), a bispectral index (BIS) value of 60, the minimal BIS and the minimal mean arterial pressure (MAP) values.
Antimalarial drug resistance is a major public health challenge and the principal reason for the erosion of efficacious treatments. Cost and the limited number of antimalarial drugs in current use impose considerable constraints on malaria control, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper describes a multilateral, multidisciplinary research project on artemisinin-based combination therapy, which offers a new and potentially highly effective way to prevent or retard the development of drug resistance.
Fosmidomycin is effective against malaria, but it needs to be given for > or =4 days when used alone. We conducted a study of 50 children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria to evaluate the safety and efficacy of consecutively shortened regimens of artesunate-fosmidomycin (1 to 2 mg/kg of body weight and 30 mg/kg of body weight, respectively; doses given every 12 hours). All dosing regimens were well tolerated. Artesunate-fosmidomycin acted rapidly, resulting in consolidated geometric mean parasite and fever clearance times of 24 h and 15 h, respectively.
BACKGROUND: The predominance of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria in Malawi more than a decade after chloroquine's withdrawal permits contemplation of re-introducing chloroquine for targeted uses. We aimed to compare the ability of different partner drugs to preserve chloroquine efficacy and prevent the re-emergence of resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Children with uncomplicated malaria were enrolled at a government health center in Blantyre, Malawi.
Journal of Renal Nutrition: The Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in multiple patient populations, including those undergoing chronic hemodialysis (CHD). Active vitamin D deficiency has been proposed to play a role in the extent of IR observed in patients with CHD. We postulated that administration of paracalcitol, an active vitamin D medication, influences IR in patients with CHD. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Ten prevalent CHD patients receiving a stable dose of paracalcitol were recruited.
Firstly, to explore whether depressive symptoms and fear of falling have been used as outcome measures in fall prevention trials. Secondly, to determine the effects of fall prevention trials on these variables among the aged. A literature search covering various medical databases was conducted to identify randomised controlled trials regarding the effects of fall prevention programmes on depressive symptoms and fear of falling among the aged.
BACKGROUND: Low back pain persisting for longer than 3 months is a common and costly condition for which many current treatments have low-moderate success rates at best. Exercise is among the more successful treatments for this condition, however, the type and dosage of exercise that elicits the best results is not clearly defined. Tai chi is a gentle form of low intensity exercise that uses controlled movements in combination with relaxation techniques and is currently used as a safe form of exercise for people suffering from other chronic pain conditions such as arthritis.