Enflurane

Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: The mammalian gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor, a likely target of anesthetic action, exhibits remarkable subunit heterogeneity. In vitro expression studies suggest that there is subunit specificity to anesthetic responses at the GABA(A) receptor. The authors tested whether genetically engineered mice that lack the beta3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor differed in their sensitivities to several general anesthetic agents.

Author(s): 
Quinlan, J. J.
Homanics, G. E.
Firestone, L. L.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

We used two mouse lines with glycine receptor mutations to determine whether glycine receptors might play an important role in anesthetic responses in vivo. Spastic (spA) mutants were slightly more sensitive (P = 0.02) to enflurane in the loss-of-righting reflex assay (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 1.17 +/- 0.06 atm for controls versus 0.97 +/- 0.06 atm for spA) but were also substantially more resistant (P = 0.01) to enflurane in the tail clamp assay (EC(50) = 1.96 +/- 0.10 atm for controls versus 2.58 +/- 0.25 atm for spA).

Author(s): 
Quinlan, Joseph J.
Ferguson, Carolyn
Jester, Katherine
Firestone, Leonard L.
Homanics, Gregg E.
Publication Title: 
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

General anesthetics are widely used in clinical practice. On the molecular level, these compounds have been shown to modulate the activity of various neuronal ion channels. However, the functional relevance of identified sites in mediating essential components of the general anesthetic state, such as immobility and hypnosis, is still unknown. Using gene-targeting technology, we generated mice harboring a subtle point mutation (N265M) in the second transmembrane region of the beta3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor.

Author(s): 
Jurd, Rachel
Arras, Margarete
Lambert, Sachar
Drexler, Berthold
Siegwart, Roberta
Crestani, Florence
Zaugg, Michael
Vogt, Kaspar E.
Ledermann, Birgit
Antkowiak, Bernd
Rudolph, Uwe
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology

The present study was designed to investigate the role of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified volatile anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting (i.p.) appropriate doses of ether, enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) injected different doses of strychnine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using the awaken test and the pain index in hot-plate test (HPPI) using the hot-plate test.

Author(s): 
Chen, Yan
Dai, Ti-Jun
Zeng, Yin-Ming
Publication Title: 
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology

The present study was designed to investigate the role of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anaesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneally injecting appropriate doses of emulsified enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally injected different doses of AMPA and then observed the effects on the sleep time using hypnosis test and the tail-withdrawal latency using the tail-withdrawal test.

Author(s): 
Hang, Lihua
Shao, Donghua
Yang, Yinghong
Sun, Wenjin
Dai, Tijun
Zeng, Yinming
Publication Title: 
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology

This study was designed to investigate the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneal injections of appropriate doses of enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally injected different doses of nicotine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using awaken test and the pain threshold in hot-plate test (HPPT) using hot-plate test.

Author(s): 
Yan, Su
Dai, Ti-Jun
Zeng, Yin-Ming
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological reports: PR

In the present study, the role of kainate (KA) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anesthetics was investigated. A mouse model of hypnosis and analgesia was established by an intraperitoneal injection of emulsified enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane. We intracerebroventricularly (icv) or intrathecally (it) administered KA, a KA receptor agonist to mice. The effects of the KA on the sleep time were observed using a hypnosis test, and the tail-withdrawal latency was analyzed using the tail-withdrawal test.

Author(s): 
Hang, Li-Hua
Shao, Dong-Hua
Gu, Yue-Ping
Dai, Ti-Jun
Publication Title: 
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the role of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptors (GHBR) in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsi?ed inhalation anesthetics.

Author(s): 
Wang, L.-W.
Zhou, M.-Y.
Jian, H.-W.
Dai, T.-J.
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