Enkephalins

Publication Title: 
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics

OBJECTIVE: Dynorphins, the endogenous ligands for the ? opioid receptor, are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders through modulation of basal and stimuli-induced dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic tones. Expression of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) is critical for rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and stress-induced responses. Epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, play an important role in modulation of gene expression.

Author(s): 
Yuferov, Vadim
Nielsen, David A.
Levran, Orna
Randesi, Matthew
Hamon, Sara
Ho, Ann
Morgello, Susan
Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: Prenatal cannabis exposure has been linked to addiction vulnerability, but the neurobiology underlying this risk is unknown. METHODS: Striatal dopamine and opioid-related genes were studied in human fetal subjects exposed to cannabis (as well as cigarettes and alcohol). Cannabis-related gene disturbances observed in the human fetus were subsequently characterized with an animal model of prenatal ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (.15 mg/kg) exposure.

Author(s): 
DiNieri, Jennifer A.
Wang, Xinyu
Szutorisz, Henrietta
Spano, Sabrina M.
Kaur, Jasbir
Casaccia, Patrizia
Dow-Edwards, Diana
Hurd, Yasmin L.
Publication Title: 
Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS

The dynorphin/?-opioid receptor system has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we present evidence indicating a key role for this system in modulating neurotransmission in brain circuits that subserve mood, motivation, and cognitive function.

Author(s): 
Tejeda, H. A.
Shippenberg, T. S.
Henriksson, R.
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: Marijuana use by teenagers often predates the use of harder drugs, but the neurobiological underpinnings of such vulnerability are unknown. Animal studies suggest enhanced heroin self-administration (SA) and dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcsh) of adults following adolescent ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure. However, a causal link between proenkephalin (Penk) expression and vulnerability to heroin has yet to be established.

Author(s): 
Tomasiewicz, Hilarie C.
Jacobs, Michelle M.
Wilkinson, Matthew B.
Wilson, Steven P.
Nestler, Eric J.
Hurd, Yasmin L.
Publication Title: 
Trends in Neurosciences

Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. ?-Opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN), have counter-modulatory effects on reward caused by cocaine or MOPr agonist exposure, and exhibit plasticity in addictive-like states. KOPr/dynorphin activation is implicated in depression/anxiety, often comorbid with addictions.

Author(s): 
Butelman, Eduardo R.
Yuferov, Vadim
Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Pharmacology

In previous studies using Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation, we showed that nitrous oxide (N(2)O) activates bulbospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats and that destruction of these neuronal pathways leads to loss of N(2)O antinociceptive action. Based on previous rat studies it has been proposed that these noradrenergic neurons are activated through opioid receptors through the release of endogenous opioid ligands in the periaqueductal gray.

Author(s): 
Kingery, W. S.
Sawamura, S.
Agashe, G. S.
Davies, M. F.
Clark, J. D.
Zimmer, A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Progress in the control and treatment of pain may be facilitated by a better understanding of mechanisms underlying nociceptive processing. Here we show that mice subjected to an intermittent fasting diet (IFD) display markedly reduced responses in models of thermal and visceral pain compared with mice fed ad libitum (AL). Pharmacological analyses suggest that a change in the endogenous kappa-opioid system underlies IFD-induced analgesia. The levels of prodynorphin mRNA and kappa-opioid receptors in the spinal cord are higher in IFD than in AL mice.

Author(s): 
de los Santos-Arteaga, Mercedes
Sierra-Domínguez, Sergio A.
Fontanella, German H.
Delgado-García, Jose M.
Carrión, Angel M.
Publication Title: 
British Medical Journal
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the expression of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA following electroacupuncture (EA) combined with droperidol (Dro), an antagonist of dopamine receptors. METHOD: The brains of Sprague-Dawley rats were sectioned after combination of EA with Dro and nonradioactive in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) technic was used.

Author(s): 
Zhu, C. B.
Li, X. Y.
Zhu, Y. H.
Xu, S. F.
Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: To study the changes of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA in rat brain in response to electroacupuncture (EA) combined with fenfluramine (Fen), a releaser of 5-HT. METHODS: In situ hybridization histochemistry technique was used to observe the expression of PPE mRNA in rat brain during EA analgesia potentiated by Fen.

Author(s): 
Li, X. Y.
Zhu, C. B.
Zhu, Y. H.
Xu, S. F.

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