BACKGROUND: Propofol is reported to reduce both sympathetic and parasympathetic tone; however, it is not clear whether the changes in heart rate variability are associated with depth of anesthesia. The purposes of the present study were (1) to evaluate the changes in heart rate variability at different depths of hypnosis and (2) to compare the effects of propofol on heart rate variability with that of sevoflurane. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly allocated into the propofol or sevoflurane for induction of anesthesia. The depth of hypnosis was monitored by the Bispectral Index (BIS).
Dietary supplements that contain Ma Huang (ephedra alkaloids) and guarana (caffeine) are widely marketed and used in the U.S. for weight loss and athletic performance enhancement, despite a lack of adequate research on the pharmacology of these botanical stimulants. We developed and applied a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method to quantitate the various ephedra alkaloids found in dietary supplements that contain Ephedra species.
Dietary supplements containing botanical forms of caffeine and ephedra alkaloids have been widely promoted and used in the U.S. for weight loss and athletic enhancement despite a lack of adequate research on the pharmacology of these botanical stimulants. In order to analyze dietary supplements and perform human pharmacokinetic studies, an analytical approach with good precision and accuracy was needed with sufficient sensitivity to detect very low levels of ephedra alkaloids.
AIM: The combination of ephedrine and caffeine has been used in herbal products for weight loss and athletic performance-enhancement, but the pharmacokinetic profiles of these compounds have not been well characterized. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model describing ephedrine, norephedrine, and caffeine pharmacokinetics and their interactions in healthy subjects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetic model was developed based on the simultaneous modelling using plasma samples gathered from two clinical trials.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ephedra species of plants have both beneficial and adverse effects primarily associated with the presence of ephedrine alkaloids. Few reports have appeared that examine the direct actions of ephedrine alkaloids on human subtypes of adrenergic receptors (ARs). In the present study, ephedrine alkaloids were evaluated for their binding affinities on human alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-, alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, and alpha(2C)-AR subtypes expressed in HEK and Chinese hamster ovary cells.
There are many important considerations in the interactions among the herbal constituents in a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ephedra Herb [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM. The combination of Eph and Gypsum [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph-Gyp) shows specific actions in patients with different body temperatures. Previous reports suggested that Gypsum prevents the thermogenesis effect induced by ephedrine at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C.
Progression of the desertification in northern China has been causing damage to wild Ephedra plants on which we depend for most of supply of the traditional herbal medicine, "Ma huang." The Chinese government encourages the cultivation of Ephedra plants, and Ephedra fields have been reclaimed in the original Ephedra habitats in recent years. We surveyed 7 Ephedra fields that have been recently developed in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to collect information on Ephedra plant cultivation, especially pertaining to crop species.
Kakkon-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Kakkon-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list. The purpose of this study was to investigate the elimination of urinary ephedrines after administering Kakkon-to and to determine the possibility of urinary positive ephedrine test results. Six healthy volunteers took one single dose of 2.5 g Kakkon-to extract granules.
Sho-seiryu-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Sho-seiryu-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list. The purpose of this study was to investigate the elimination of urinary ephedrines after administering Sho-seiryu-to preparation and to determine the possibility of positive ephedrines test results in urine. Six healthy volunteers took a single 2.5-g dose of concentrated Sho-seiryu-to preparation.
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Kampo medicine, maoto, has been widely used in the treatment of febrile symptoms caused by viral infection. This herbal extract granule for oral use, however, is not well accepted by infants or young children due to its unpleasant taste and odor. Therefore, we prepared Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository and investigated the pharmaceutical and clinical efficacy of the suppository.