Epidemiologic Methods

Publication Title: 
International Journal of Clinical Practice

AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence regarding the adverse effects (AEs) of homeopathy. METHOD: Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. RESULTS: In total, 38 primary reports met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 30 pertained to direct AEs of homeopathic remedies; and eight were related to AEs caused by the substitution of conventional medicine with homeopathy. The total number of patients who experienced AEs of homeopathy amounted to 1159.

Author(s): 
Posadzki, P.
Alotaibi, A.
Ernst, E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviewers generally evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) based on the published reports. We evaluated whether the description of methods in the published reports is an accurate and complete reflection of study procedures used. METHODS: The authors of 51 RCTs included in a systematic review of acupuncture for chronic pain were sent a brief survey that included questions related to the following three important study quality dimensions: (1) generation of allocation sequence, (2) allocation concealment, and (3) blinding of outcomes assessor.

Author(s): 
Manheimer, Eric
Ezzo, Jeanette
Hadhazy, Victoria
Berman, Brian
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs) of acupuncture have become increasingly popular in China in recent years and have been published in large numbers. This review provides the first examination of epidemiological characteristics of these SRs as well as compliance with the PRISMA and AMSTAR guidelines. OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to examine epidemiological and reporting characteristics as well as methodological quality of SRs of acupuncture published in Chinese journals.

Author(s): 
Ma, Bin
Qi, Guo-qing
Lin, Xiao-ting
Wang, Ting
Chen, Zhi-min
Yang, Ke-hu
Publication Title: 
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

An epidemiological study was carried out among a random sample of women aged 18 to 69 years to examine possible determinants of plasma high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (HDL-C and T-C). In a multiple regression analysis consumption of alcohol, fatty fish, and parental longevity showed positive associations with HDL-C, which were statistically significant. Smoking habit, sucrose consumption, and a family history of ischaemic heart disease showed significantly negative associations.

Author(s): 
Yarnell, J. W.
Milbank, J.
Walker, C. L.
Fehily, A. M.
Hayes, T. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American College of Nutrition

Diet is a component in the etiology of the two major causes of death in the United States, namely, cardiovascular disease and cancer. During the last decade, various organizations have suggested that we alter the "typical" American diet in order to decrease the incidence of these diseases even though both diseases are indisputably of multiple etiology. An implication behind these recommendations is that individuals will increase their longevity by changing their diets.

Author(s): 
Klurfeld, D. M.
Kritchevsky, D.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer

Haiti exemplifies all of the problems of developing countries: poverty, hunger, reduced longevity, and an illiteracy rate of more than 75%. It is, therefore, not surprising that so little attention has been given to late-onset chronic diseases, particularly cancer. The results of a special survey of cancer cases first diagnosed in 1979-84 are presented, with relative proportions of cancers by site, according to age, sex and geographical area of origin (coastal vs. mountain).

Author(s): 
Mitacek, E. J.
St Vallieres, D.
Polednak, A. P.
Publication Title: 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented.

Author(s): 
Khaw, K. T.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Perhaps one of the most unexpected and novel findings in nutritional epidemiology in the past 5 y has been that nut consumption seems to protect against ischemic heart disease (IHD). Frequency and quantity of nut consumption have been documented to be higher in vegetarian than in nonvegetarian populations. Nuts also constitute an important part of other plant-based diets, such as Mediterranean and Asian diets.

Author(s): 
SabatÈ, J.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Health Psychology

Kanazawa (2006) has put forward an evolutionarily grounded theory which claims that individuals in wealthier and more egalitarian societies live longer and stay healthier not because they are wealthier or more egalitarian but because they are more intelligent (2006: 637). The claim rests on an argument which asserts that general intelligence is a solution to evolutionarily novel problems and that most dangers to health in contemporary society are evolutionarily novel. Kanazawa also claims that this relationship does not hold in sub-Saharan Africa.

Author(s): 
Dickins, T. E.
Sear, R.
Wells, A. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Medical Genetics

Data from the US National Huntington's Disease Roster have been analysed in terms of the difference in age of onset (AO) between affected parents and affected offspring, that is, in terms of 'anticipation'. While mean AO in offspring of affected mothers did not differ greatly from AO in their mothers, the distribution of AO in the offspring of affected fathers falls into two groups, the larger group showing an AO only slightly younger than their affected fathers and a small group whose AO was, on average, 24 years younger than their affected fathers.

Author(s): 
Ridley, R. M.
Frith, C. D.
Crow, T. J.
Conneally, P. M.

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